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RNAs in Biological News

Small RNAs can play critical roles in male infertility/contraception

RENO, Nev. University of Nevada School of Medicine scientists in the Department of Physiology and Cell Biology have discovered insight into the reproductive workings of the male sex chromosome that may have significant implications for male infertility and contraception. This import...

Scientists at CSHL discover mobile small RNAs that set up leaf patterning in plants

Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. -- A key item in the developmental agenda of a plant leaf is the establishment of an axis that makes a leaf's top half distinct from its bottom half. This asymmetry is crucial for the leaf's function: it ensures that the leaf develops a flattened blade that is optimized fo...

Scientists at CSHL discover mobile small RNAs that set up leaf patterning in plants

Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. -- A key item in the developmental agenda of a plant leaf is the establishment of an axis that makes a leaf's top half distinct from its bottom half. This asymmetry is crucial for the leaf's function: it ensures that the leaf develops a flattened blade that is optimized fo...

CSHL scientists find a new class of small RNAs and define its function

Cold Spring Harbor, NY Researchers at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) announced today the discovery of a new class of small RNAs. At the same time, they reported that their discovery suggests the presence of a strikingly novel biochemical pathway for RNA processing in which these and possibl...

UT Southwestern researchers identify new targets for RNAs that regulate genes

DALLAS July 6, 2008 Tiny strands of genetic material called RNA a chemical cousin of DNA are emerging as major players in gene regulation, the process inside cells that drives all biology and that scientists seek to control in order to fight disease. The idea that RNA (ribonucleic acid) is...

Scientists discover small RNAs that regulate gene expression and protect the genome

RNA is best known as a working copy of the DNA sequence of genes. In this role, its a carrier of the genes instructions to the cell, which manufactures proteins according to information in the RNA molecule. But molecular biologists have increasingly realized that many RNA snippets -- so-called...

CSHL researchers pinpoint structure-building role for 2 non-coding RNAs

Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. Most of the DNA in the nucleus of each of our cells is converted into RNA, but only a small fraction of these RNA molecules serve as coding templates for the synthesis of proteins. Of the remaining RNAs, known as "non-coding" RNAs (ncRNA), the functions of a scant few are...

Plant biologists discover unexpected proteins affecting small RNAs

LA JOLLA, CA - Now that high school biology students can recite that genes are made of DNA, which is transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA), which is then translated into protein, along comes a new class of molecules, sending studentsand many scientistsscrambling for updated textbooks. A study b...

Identification of a novel class of (not-so) small RNAs

In the December 1st issue of G&D, Dr. Hailing Jin and colleagues (UC Riverside) report on their discovery of a new class of small RNAs in Arabidopsis. These newly-discovered, 30-40 nt long small RNAs have been dubbed long short interfering RNAs (lsiRNAs), and are induced by bacterial infection or ...

Non-coding RNAs help silence the mammalian transcription

Dr. Shirley Tilghman and colleagues (Princeton University) lend new insight into the mechanism of genomic imprinting, demonstrating a necessary role for a non-coding RNA transcript in the silencing of an imprinted gene cluster in mice. Imprinting, or the differential expression of a gene based up...

Micro RNAs play role in egg making

Researchers at Northwestern University and Carnegie Mellon University have found that a recently described class of molecules called microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating oogenesis, the process by which females make eggs. MiRNAs silence genes by binding to genetic elements called ...

Once given 'no respect,' cells' tiny RNAS take driver's seat

Ribonucleic acid, or RNA, has long been thought to be important only to translate a gene's DNA into the proteins that are cells' workhorses. But new evidence shows that tiny bits of RNA not used to make proteins actually play central roles in normal biology and in the development of cancers. "Sci...

UC San Diego engineer provides insights to decades-old DNA squabble

... it is always associated with proteins in this complex aggregate we call chromatin," he added. "Undoubtedly, DNA codes for nearly all the proteins and rnas manufactured inside our cells but how, when, and which genes are turned on and off is almost completely determined by the structure, dynamics, and che...

Parasites ready to jump

...ransposon activity is inhibited but only if these rnas are transmitted from the mother. Disruption of thi...enable the cell to recognize and destroy messenger rnas derived from transposons. The researchers in Frste...ore recent findings, the known repertoire of small rnas has grown. As Frstemann stresses, "It is therefore...

International research team seeks to unravel flatworm regeneration

...present the first comprehensive catalogue of small rnas of planaria, elements that regulate gene expression. They also have identified small rnas which may play a role in regeneration and stem cel... molecules which regulate genes, such as the small rnas and especially microRNAs (miRNAs). Of the hund...

LincRNAs serve as genetic air-traffic controllers

...of RNA genes known as large intervening non-coding rnas or "lincRNAs," a discovery that has pushed the fie...f the genome." Standard "textbook" genes encode rnas that are translated into proteins, and mammalian g...ding genes. Some genes, however, encode functional rnas that are never translated into proteins. These inc...

Researchers see evidence of memory in the songbird brain

... new study took a broad snapshot of gene activity in the brain. Using DNA microarray analysis, the researchers measured changes in levels of messenger rnas in the auditory forebrain of finches exposed to a new song. These mRNAs are templates that allow the cell to translate individual genes into the prote...

MicroRNAs help control HIV life cycle

... LA JOLLA, Calif., June 26, 2009 Scientists at Burnham Institute for Medical Research (Burnham) have discovered that specific microRNAs (non-coding rnas that interfere with gene expression) reduce HIV replication and infectivity in human T-cells. In particular, miR29 plays a key role in controlling the...

Scripps Research scientists observe human neurodegenerative disorder in fruit flies

...ring of amino acids. That's where the tRNA synthetases are needed. When building new proteins, ribosomes rely on a set of molecules called transfer rnas (tRNAs) to supply them with the amino acids they need to construct the proteins. The tRNA synthetases are needed to attach amino acids to the tRNAs. ...

A Canada-wide technology platform for mapping the human interactome

...tanding the interactome's organization by mapping the dynamic networks that proteins form when they interact together and with other molecules such as rnas or DNA will allow us to better define the very bases of life and the misfunctions that lead to illness and eventually death. "There is even hope that ...

Research uncovers clues to virus-cancer link

... activity were significantly less active in both types of cancer. "Micro rnas are an exciting new class of cancer markers. Knowing which ones are present...articular tumor will help us understand the biology and develop those micro rnas as novel cancer therapy targets.:" Scientists believe that finding the m...

Research team finds important role for junk DNA

...put this genome back together again -- the instruction set comes in the form of RNA that is passed briefly from parent to offspring and these maternal rnas provide templates for the rearrangement process," Landweber said. "Now we've been studying the actual machinery involved in the process of cutting and...

New tool isolates RNA within specific cells

..."It is much like eavesdropping on a phone conversation, rather than pulling the person out of the house for questioning. The cell has no idea that its rnas are being 'tagged' for isolation and study. That's good, because we get a more accurate idea of what the cell is saying." That, Doe added, could b...

MIT reels in RNA surprise with microbial ocean catch

...ion has yielded an unexpected boon: the presence of many varieties of small rnas snippets of RNA that act as switches to regulate gene expression in these ...a tough situation, for instance? The discovery of naturally occurring small rnas is a first step towards addressing such questions." ...

Darwin in a test tube

...ntinuously evolve. This allowed her to set the two rnas in evolutionary motion within the same pot, forcin...olecules necessary for each RNA's replication. The rnas will only replicate if they have catalyzed attachm...themselves to these food molecules. So long as the rnas have ample food, they will replicate, and as they ...

Genetic switch potential key to new class of antibiotics

.... The mRNAs are then transported to ribosomes that pair them with transfer rnas that contribute amino acids into a protein chain, thereby decoding the gene...ch fold also forces us to reevaluate the numerous, small non-protein-coding rnas present in the human genome. In the future, we hope to unravel the biology ...

New technique used to profile anthrax genome

...ying it to bacteria has been difficult, said Bergman, because bacterial mRNAs have a different structure and cannot be easily separated from the other rnas in the cell. To solve this problem, the Georgia Tech team worked with researchers from Life Technologies, a biotechnology tools company, and ultim...

Protein is key to embryonic stem cell differentiation

...and showed that differentiation was dramatically impaired as the cells self-renewed as stem cells. The researchers also demonstrated small interfering rnas in hESCs reduce Shp2 expression and subsequent cell differentiation. Feng and colleagues screened chemical libraries and identified a small-molecule i...

Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation awards prestigious fellowships to 13 top young investigators

... Kristina M. Herbert, PhD, with her sponsor Joan A. Steitz, PhD, at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, is studying the mechanism by which small rnas called microRNAs are produced and the regulation of this process within the cell. She hopes to gain understanding of why certain microRNAs are expres...

Researchers identify gene linked to aggressive progression of liver cancer

...netics in the VCU School of Medicine, and Harrison Endowed Scholar in Cancer Research at the VCU Massey Cancer Center. siRNAs are small inhibitory rnas that can specifically inhibit targeted mRNA and protein production. siRNAs may be used in the future for targeted inhibition of AEG-1 in patients, Sar...

CSHL scientists discover how 'companion' cells to sperm protect them from genetic damage

...erm remains safe. Companion cells generate transposon-silencing small rnas This activation of transposons in the "companion" cell, the CSHL team s...netic instructions are small bits of RNA molecules called small interfering rnas (siRNAs), which get transported from the companion cell and deposited into ...

Scientists uncover new class of non-protein coding genes in mammals with key functions

...have almost entirely missed until now." Standard "textbook" genes encode rnas that are translated into proteins, and mammalian genomes harbor about 20,000 such protein-coding genes. Some genes, however, encode functional rnas that are never translated into proteins. These include a handful of classic...

2009 Damon Runyon-Rachleff Innovation Awards granted for pioneering ideas in cancer research

...discovered a new class of molecule that may have important implications for understanding and treating cancer. lincRNAs large intergenic non-coding rnas are unique from other materials in cells, however, their precise function remains unknown. Dr. Rinn aims to decipher the workings of lincRNAs and pr...

U-M researchers discover new genes that fuse in cancer

...tify these gene fusions more quickly and easily. The researchers used a technique called gene sequencing, which involves creating a library of all rnas in a cell. Sequencing machines then run 24 hours a day for days at a time, reading the RNA. Once the sequencing is finished, researchers study the dat...

Researchers find nature's shut-off switch for cellulose production

...y and plant pathology, said that small-interfering rnas (siRNAs) play a normal role in plant development b... of thicker, secondary cell walls. "These small rnas were known to play a role in fending off disease-c...lant to our control plants we found that the small rnas were responsible and already in the controls even ...

Stowers Institute's Baumann Lab identifies key step in maturation pathway of telomerase

...al first author on the paper. "The 3' ends of many rnas must be processed to produce a mature and function...a time until the mature end has been reached. Some rnas are cleaved near the end before exonucleolytic deg... the machinery that removes introns from messenger rnas also functions in generating the mature 3' end of ...

Researchers solve piece of large-scale gene silencing mystery

...borators' research suggests that small interfering rnas (siRNAs) can direct silencing agendas that are muc...ion." Fragments of RNA known as small interfering rnas (siRNAs) prevent specific genes from being express...borators were able to determine which proteins and rnas were necessary to keep the silenced parental genes...

CSHL scientists discover a new way in which epigenetic information is inherited

...n, Ph.D., has now discovered that a class of small rnas does carry epigenetic information and in fact pass...cience , the CSHL team reports that maternal small rnas called Piwi-interacting rnas (piRNAs) that are deposited into fruit fly embryos...

Mechanisms of cardiovascular disease and cancer give clues to new therapies

...sk of both cardiovascular diseases and cancers. "The future direction is to investigate whether and how the different gene networks regulated by micro rnas are organized as a whole," said Giuseppe Rainaldi, the co-convenor of the workshop. "These studies will be necessary in order to understand complex bi...

New gene-silencing pathway found in plants

... DNA to RNA -- siRNAs can effectively extinguish gene expression at its earliest stage. Pikaard explains, "From yeast to plants to humans these small rnas can specify the modification of DNA somehow in a way that prevents transcription in the first place." According to Pikaard, most eukaryotes use the s...
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