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Deep-sea rocks point to early oxygen on Earth

Red jasper cored from layers 3.46 billion years old suggests that not only did the oceans contain abundant oxygen then, but that the atmosphere was as oxygen rich as it is today, according to geologists. This jasper or hematite-rich chert formed in ways similar to the way this rock forms around...

Molecular fingerprints point the way to earlier cancer diagnosis and more targeted treatment

AUGUSTA, Ga. Metabolites are molecular fingerprints of what your cells are up to and Dr. Arun Sreekumar wants to know the impression made by cancer. You've likely heard about metabolites; your physician probably screens for some known ones such as triglycerides or cholesterol at your annual ph...

Studies point to novel target for treating arrhythmias

Abnormal heart rhythms arrhythmias are killers. They strike without warning, causing sudden cardiac death, which accounts for about 10 percent of all deaths in the United States. Vanderbilt investigators have discovered a new molecular mechanism associated with arrhythmias. Their findings, repo...

Scientists point to forests for carbon storage solutions

COLUMBUS, Ohio Scientists who have determined how much carbon is stored annually in upper Midwest forests hope their findings will be used to accelerate global discussion about the strategy of managing forests to offset greenhouse gas emissions. In an era of competing land use demands, the res...

A switch that controls whether cells pass point of no return

DURHAM, N.C. Investigators at the Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy have revealed the hidden properties of an on-off switch that governs cell growth. The Duke team proved that if the switch is on, then a cell will divide, even if its damaged or the signal to grow disappears. Showi...

Robot fetches objects with just a point and a click

ATLANTA (March 19, 2008) — Robots are fluent in their native language of 1 and 0 absolutes but struggle to grasp the nuances and imprecise nature of human language. While scientists are making slow, incremental progress in their quest to create a robot that responds to speech, gestures and body la...

Computer simulations point to key molecular basis of cystic fibrosis

Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have identified a key molecular mechanism that may account for the development of cystic fibrosis, which about 1 in 3000 children are born with in the US every year. The findings, published February 29 in the open-access journal PLo...

Anthrax cellular entry point uncovered

BIRMINGHAM, Ala. The long-sought-after biological gateway that anthrax uses to enter healthy cells has been uncovered by microbiologists at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB). Anthrax spores enter the cell through something called Mac-1, a receptor that sits on the surface of certai...

Liquid crystal phases of tiny DNA molecules point up new scenario for first life on Earth

A team led by the University of Colorado at Boulder and the University of Milan has discovered some unexpected forms of liquid crystals of ultrashort DNA molecules immersed in water, providing a new scenario for a key step in the emergence of life on Earth. CU-Boulder physics Professor Noel Cl...

UCSB scientists document fate of huge oil slicks from seeps at coal oil point

(Santa Barbara, Calif.) Twenty years ago, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez was exiting Alaska's Prince William Sound when it struck a reef in the middle of the night. What happened next is considered one of the nation's worst environmental disasters: 10.8 million gallons of crude oil spilled into the...

Heart attacks: The tipping point

Twenty percent of American deaths each year are caused by heart attack or angina, sometimes without any warning. But thanks to new research from Dr. Sharon Zlochiver of the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Tel Aviv University, there's new hope for potential heart attack victims. By look...

Plant-derived molecules, genetic manipulation point to future chemoprevention methods

Scientists are using genetic studies and natural chemicals, such as plant-derived triterpenoids, to further our knowledge on how genetic and early molecular interactions can lead to cancer, and how those early interactions can be manipulated to stave off a variety of cancers. The latest studies wit...

Does missing gene point to nocturnal existence for early mammals?

A gene that makes cells in the eye receptive to light is missing in humans, researchers have discovered. They say that whereas some animals like birds, fish and amphibians have two versions of this photoreceptor, mammals, including humans, only have one. The findings ?published in the Public...

Gardenia fruit compound starting point for diabetes therapy

A Gardenia fruit extract traditionally used in Chinese medicine to treat the symptoms of type 2 diabetes does indeed contain a chemical that reverses some of the pancreatic dysfunctions that underlie the disease, researchers report in the June 7, 2006, Cell Metabolism. The chemical therefore repres...

Novel method reveals how menthol discovery could point towards new or improved pain therapies

This new understanding could lead to potential advances in pain therapy, the researchers said. Moreover, the scientists envision that their method may be potentially useful in studying the activation mechanism of other drugs and proteins. "Because our ability to sense temperature is closely link...

Scientists crack 40-year-old DNA puzzle and point to 'hot soup' at the origin of life

A new theory that explains why the language of our genes is more complex than it needs to be also suggests that the primordial soup where life began on earth was hot and not cold, as many scientists believe. In a paper published in the Journal of Molecular Evolution this week, researchers from th...

Highest ever winter water temperatures recorded

...d the western half of the country, meeting its better known cousin, the East Australian Current (EAC), at Tasmania. The exact location of this meeting point varies both seasonally and from year-to-year, depending on how strongly each current is flowing. Oceanographers believe the EAC has gradually been...

Navigating in the ocean of molecules

...tructurally simple scaffolds with promising characteristics as the starting point in the quest for new active agents: chemists can then vary the scaffolds wi...bladder cancer, while the oestrogen receptor alpha is an important starting point in the treatment of breast cancer. "Scaffold Hunter is a key technologic...

Carbon nanoparticles toxic to adult fruit flies but benign to young

...p to show the risks of carbon nanoparticles in the environment, said David Rand, professor of biology, who specializes in fruit fly evolution. "The point is these same compounds that were not toxic to the (fruit fly) larvae were toxic to the adults in some cases, so there may be analogies to other toxic...

AGU journal highlights -- Aug. 6, 2009

...rs show how near-surface meridional flows directly driven by zonal winds are balanced by deepwater return flows that are slightly lagged in time. They point out that the study helps clarify the dynamic mechanisms that relate wind stress to ocean mass flows in the Southern Ocean and demonstrates the usefuln...

Wastewater produces electricity and desalinates water

...atter as the fuel to desalinate water," the researchers report in a recent online issue of Environmental Science and Technology . "The big selling point is that it currently takes a lot of electricity to desalinate water and using the microbial desalination cells, we could actually desalinate water and...

'Green' energy from algae

...eing achieved in both process technology and biology", explains Posten. The stop of his research area on the southern KIT campus marks the starting point of research conducted by the Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology on the northern campus of the KIT. Here, it is focused on extracting ...

Understanding how weeds are resistant to herbicides

...? Is it the way the genes are expressed? "These are questions that 10 years ago we couldn't address because we didn't know the genes. Now we're at the point where we can start doing that and on a broad scale. We can do this with waterhemp and we can do this with another weed and we can compare the two are...

Bioethanol's impact on water supply 3 times higher than once thought

...ree times more water than previously thought. Their study appeared in ACS' journal Environmental Science & Technology . Sangwon Suh and colleagues point out in the study that annual bioethanol production in the U.S. is currently about 9 billion gallons and note that experts expect it to increase in the...

Holding breath for several minutes elevates marker for brain damage

...d blood pressure, slowed heartbeat and other physiological changes. However, whether the sport causes any long-term damage to the brain has remained a point of contention. Studies have produced conflicting results. The authors of this study see cause for concern, noting that in six international competi...

Martin Hensen, head of e-strategies, UCB Germany: Making e-marketing more than just an add-on

...s force, e-marketing is still an add on, says Martin Hensen, head of e-strategies, UCB Germany. But successful e-CRM strategies are the basic starting point for all e-activities, he told eyeforpharma. For the sales force, CRM strategies build targeting and steering, as well as customer classification to ...

New hope for fisheries

... analysis was mostly confined to intensively managed fisheries in developed countries, where scientific data on fish abundance is collected. They also point out that some excess fishing effort is simply displaced to countries with weaker laws and enforcement capacity. While most of the fisheries that sh...

Global curbs on overfishing are beginning to work

...r analysis is mostly confined to intensively managed fisheries in developed countries, where scientific data on fish abundance is collected. They also point out that some excess fishing effort is simply displaced to countries with weaker laws and enforcement capacity. Dr Fulton used the ecosystem models...

Leicester research paves way for first use in Europe of an insect to fight invasive plant

... be closely monitored, with appropriate contingency plans in place. At the point that the organism is declared to be ordinarily resident, anybody may move i...n was arranged and plants collected from a wide geographical range. At this point they were contacted by Dick Shaw of CABI, who was contemplating starting a ...

'Microfluidic palette' may paint clearer picture of biological processes

...The advantage of the NIST system, as described in a new paper,* is that the gradients are generated by diffusionthe gentle movement of matter from one point to another by random molecular motion. Microfluidic systems usually mix fluids more actively, by pumps and the circulation of currents. Diffusion grad...

Reprogramming human cells without inserting genes

... proteins that changed the skin cells back to a more pluripotent state. This technique, which has since been repeated by other labs and refined to the point were fewer additional genes are needed to achieve reprogramming, was a major scientific breakthrough. Its potential for use in human therapies is limi...

Humans 'damaging the oceans'

...tmosphere by 2040. That's the level when, it is generally agreed, global climate change may become catastrophic and irreversible," they add. "At that point we can expect to see the loss of most of our coral reefs and the arctic seas." "The climate is currently warming faster than the worst case known f...

Experimental treatment halts hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in newborns

... occurs right before, during or shortly after birth, affecting two to four of every 1,000 births. The causes are mostly unknown, although some studies point to the possibility of problems with the placenta, maternal blood pressure or complications related to the umbilical cord. Close to 20 percent of newbo...

Freshwater fish at the top of the food chain evolve more slowly

...ing fish roughly 20 million years ago natural selection seems to have kept them in an evolutionary holding pattern, the researchers say. "At some point in the history of this group, some of them started feeding on fish," says Wainwright. "And once they achieved a morphology that was good at feeding o...

1 in 6 health workers won't report in flu pandemic -- study by Ben-Gurion U. researchers

...ecific designated role cannot be predetermined, a set of potential roles have to be defined and adequately introduced to all relevant workers, up to a point at which they will feel confident in their ability to perform their duty, and perceive it as important.aa Downplaying the threat of the scenario t...

Maternal, paternal genes' tug-of-war may last well into childhood

...all three disorders display a weak desire to nurse, and slower childhood growth in general. Many also show early onset of puberty, which often marks a point at which children become less dependent on their mothers' sustenance. Conversely, babies with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, in which some maternally...

Comprehensive look at rare leukemia finds relatively few genetic changes launch disease

...own as copy number alterations (CNAs). To identify point mutations, the researchers also performed DNA re-s...f 25 genes that are commonly mutated in adult AML. point mutations involve a single chemical change in the ...e than two CNAs per AML patient, and less than one point mutation per patient in the genes sequenced. The s...

University has grand designs to build a house of straw

...leHaus at Bath. Professor Pete Walker, Director of the BRE Centre in Innovative Construction Materials at the University of Bath, said: "Up to this point straw bales have not really been seen as a credible building material by much of the industry, even though straw has always been used in building for ...

Researchers develop 'brain-reading' methods

...ion before it reaches a person's awareness. But until now, there was little way to determine what specific mental tasks were taking place prior to the point of conscious awareness. That has changed with the findings of scientists at Rutgers University in Newark and the University of California, Los Ange...

ISU researchers find possible treatment for spinal muscular atrophy

...resulting proteins are normal just like a regular cell - free from Spinal Muscular Atrophy. "Our cells are healthy and survive," he said. "From that point of view, this is a major achievement." Singh, along with his team Natalia Singh and Maria Shishimorova, both of Iowa State University's biomedical s...
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