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Organs in Biological News

UCR scientists identify stem-cell genes that help form plant organs

RIVERSIDE, Calif. Plant stem-cells are master cells located at the tip of the stem and are part of a structure called the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Here, the stem cellsall clumped togetherdivide throughout the life of the plant to give rise to other cells, resulting in the formation of above-g...

New regulatory mechanism discovered for cell identify and behavior in forming organs

CINCINNATI Two proteins interact in a previously unknown molecular mechanism that may have broad implications in future studies looking for the causes of defective organs in fetuses, metastatic cancers and other diseases, according to researchers at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. ...

Scientists explore how complex organs develop from a simple bud

The current issue of Differentiation, guest-edited by Brigid Hogan, highlights several scientific investigations into the complex biological mechanism known as branching morphogenesis. Through a series of seven laboratory reviews, important insights governing this process during animal development ...

PNAS study reveals why organs fail following massive trauma

Massive trauma, say from a sabertooth tiger attack, meant immediate death for the primitive human. Modern man is more likely to survive severe injury caused by a car crash, gunshot or fall thanks to high-tech emergency medicine. Unfortunately, the body does not know what to do when it survives an ...

Researchers discover which organs in Antarctic fish produce antifreeze

Thirty-five years ago Arthur DeVries of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign first documented antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) in Antarctic notothenioid fishes. This month three colleagues report they've solved the ensuing, long-running mystery of where these AFGPs, which allow the fish t...

Study finds how organs monitor themselves during early development

How are you? In biological terms this question could involve a feedback loop that lets the body check in on itself and then act on that information. Although feedback loops are essential and they abound in biology, they aren't well understood. Feedback loops enable an organ such as the liver to det...

Transplanting Animal Organs Could Soon Be A Reality

In findings with implications for pandemic influenza, a new study reports for the first time that a less-virulent strain of avian influenza virus can spread from poultry to humans. The research appears in the October 1 issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases, now available online. Crossing t...

Discoveries by UAB and Florida scientists may help transplanted organs survive longer

Scientists may have found a way to dramatically slow organ transplant rejection by as much as several years. That's the promising implication of an animal study carried out by researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and the University of Florida (UF) published in today's (Ma...

Holding breath for several minutes elevates marker for brain damage

...spec=relevance&author1=Andersson&fulltext=divers&pubdate_year=2009&volume=&firstpage= Physiology is the study of how molecules, cells, tissues and organs function to create health or disease. The American Physiological Society (APS) has been an integral part of this scientific discovery process since it...

Protecting cells from their neighbors

...d by the separation of cells that will become sperm and ovules - germ cells-, from the remaining cells, which will be responsible for forming the body organs and tissues -, and that comprise the somatic cell line. Scientists at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), headed by Jordi Casan...

Stem cell research: From molecular physiology to therapeutic applications

...nto osteogenic, adipogenic and endothelial lineages, but also hepatocyte-like cells, and neural and erythroid cells. They remained in some tissues and organs during gestation and could give rise to different kinds of pluripotent stem cells and thus could potentially contribute to self-repair and self-renewa...

UAB study reveals bone coupling factor key to skeletal health

...that." Discovered many years ago, TGF beta-1 is one of the most abundant cytokines in bone. It has been identified in lung, liver, kidney and other organs that undergo remodeling as a natural part of the growth and aging process. Understanding the TGF beta-1 role in bone may shed light on many other dise...

Pitt team finds molecule that regulates heart size by using zebrafish screening model

...te treatments that restore normal function to damaged or diseased tissues, it will help us to know the biologic pathways and signals that formed these organs whole and healthy in the first place. This information can be gained by studying developmental biology." Zebrafish are vertebrate animals whose tra...

The sound of light: Innovative technology shatters the barriers of modern light microscopy

...ic patterns. An attached computer uses these formulas to evaluate and interpret the specific distortions caused by scales, muscles, bones and internal organs to generate a three-dimensional image. The result of this "multi-spectral opto-acoustic tomography", or MSOT, is an image with a striking spatial r...

Trio of signals converge to induce liver and pancreas cell development in the embryo

... PHILADELPHIA - Understanding the molecular signals that guide early cells in the embryo to develop into different organs provides insight into ways that tissues regenerate and how stem cells can be used for new therapies. With regenerated cells, researchers hope to one d...

CWRU receives $5 million from Ohio Third Frontier Commission

... "I can see stem cells replacing drugs to improve many diseases," said Dr. Gerson. "Stem cells can replace injured cells, improve the function of many organs in the body and provide specific new functions to treat many diseases." The Third Frontier funding will support the following commercial, emerging ...

Mouse model provides clues to human language development

... functional level has been lacking until now. The Helmholtz scientists in the German Mouse Clinic conduct comprehensive analyses to elucidate which organs are influenced by a gene in this case the Foxp2 gene. "It is rare for a gene to have only one function," explained Professor Martin Hrab de Angelis, ...

Caltech researchers explore how cells reconcile mixed messages in decisions about growth

...rest of the area, or you can get the entire cluster to increase in size all at once." "This is useful," he adds, "in thinking about how to engineer organs and tissues. I believe that this can become an important building block, a part of the tool set, that allows us to grow multicellular structuresand, u...

Size did matter

...lion years ago. Matzke-Karasz said, 'In these microfossils, we detected organs that are required for transferring giant spermatozoa. Since modern ostracods still produce giant sperm and manoeuvre them with the same organs as 100 million years ago, it's safe to say this distinctive feature evolved...

Protecting the food crops of the future

... The model will also calculate the impact of changes in external factors such as climate. Professor Davies says: "Flowers are a plant's reproductive organs and it is essential for breeding programmes and crop harvests that farmers and breeders are able to predict when flowering will take place. This has ...

Test detects molecular marker of aging in humans

...eflection of cellular age in all types of human tissues, we believe it is a first step toward a better understanding of issues like the suitability of organs for transplantation, how well patients are likely to recover after surgery or the future toxicity of chemotherapy for cancer patients," he added. ...

Chemical in blood may explain susceptibility to bladder pain

... be that there is some kind of primary central nervous system disorder that results in problems in the bladder in some people, and in the gut or other organs in others," Buffington said. "It is possible that this is a biomarker for the underlying vulnerability or susceptibility." Buffington has led studi...

MicroRNAs grease the cell's circadian clockwork

...rnal clock, a group of genes displaying a cyclic expression pattern that reaches a peak once a day. A large number of circadian genes are expressed by organs such as the liver, whose activity needs to be precisely regulated over the course of the day. A team of researchers of the National Centre of Competen...

Sugarcoating fruit fly development

...proteins. They switch off developmental genes when and where their activity is not needed and thereby prevent the formation of specialised tissues and organs in the wrong places. The scientists found that in the absence of Ogt, Polycomb proteins are no longer able to inactivate developmental genes. They ...

University of Florida study provides insight into evolution of first flowers

...Advanced angiosperms have four organ types: female organs (carpels), male organs (stamens), petals (typically colorful) and sepals ...rlap among the three organ types. "Although the organs are developing to ultimately become different thin...

Genital stimulation opens door for cryptic female choice in tsetse flies

...y applying a coat of nail polish. In addition, they modified the sensations perceived by the female from these structures by altering the female sense organs on the portions of her body that these male structures contact during copulation. "We were surprised by the number of female processes that were influ...

Random picks better than complicated process in gene identification

...eaus, you can give up. You've put in as much effort as you need," DeWoody said. DeWoody and Hale tested the theory on samples from the reproductive organs of lake sturgeon while trying to find the genes responsible for determining fish sex. Hale said the work is important to conserve species by understan...

From cars to cancer: UH professor employs auto industry tools for tumor therapy

...treating the cancer cells and, at the same time, sparing normal cells," Dong said. "It's very easy to kill cancer by radiation, but not harming normal organs at the same time can be tricky. So, it's a delicate, fine balance." Kamrani hopes that, based upon initial CT scan readings, the team will be able...

Publication sets guidelines across cancer therapies: Ensuring the best in patient management

...buted to and developed this new supplement. FDG PET is a noninvasive, painless molecular imaging technology that allows physicians to determine how organs and tissues inside the body are functioning on a molecular and cellular level. In the past, collecting information about tumor response in a structure...

Drugs needed to preserve eggs for reproduction need to be given in stages

...essed eggs. Improved transportability could be a big plus if/when these preservation techniques are applied to organs, he says. About 40 percent of organs intended for transplantation are damaged before and during transportation and Dr. Eroglu theorizes the glasslike state that can preserve an egg for ye...

2009 ASPB Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship award announcement

...eer in plant ecology. Annie Jeong, Barnard College Mentor: Kristen Shepard Analysis of the Spatial Orientation of Chimeric and Male Floral organs in Spergularia Marina I am a junior at Barnard College, majoring in Biology, with a Chemistry minor. This is my first year working with SURF, but am...

Research could lead to new non-antibiotic drugs to counter hospital infections

...ng cause of sickness and death among hospitalized patients who have undergone surgery or have reduced immunity. If the bacterium attacks critical body organs such as the lungs, urinary tract and kidneys, it is likely to be fatal. P. aeruginosa thrives on moist surfaces, so it is often found on catheters, ...

Two-day symposium in Baltimore to tackle the promises and perils of proton radiotherapy

...ncers near the eyes and spine, and for tumors in children, whose developing organs could be damaged by collateral damage. Speakers in a sister session wil...aiming of proton beams, irregularities in body or the movements of internal organs can still throw off this targeting, causing unintended damage. The conseque...

Early family ties: No sponge in the human family tree

...ucture. They have a flat, disk-shaped body, and no organs either. Comb jellies, the ctenophores, are life fo...dy present in sponges. Similarly, eye-like sensory organs can already be detected in box jellyfish. "One of ...oolkit for the nervous system, muscles and sensory organs evolved in animal history," Wrheide concludes. ...

UC Davis researchers identify a protein that may help breast cancer spread, beat cancer drugs

...New research from UC Davis Cancer Center shows that a protein called Muc4 may be the essential ingredient that allows breast cancer to spread to other organs and resist therapeutic treatment. The study, which appears in the April 1 issue of Cancer Research , is one of the first to characterize the role of ...

Amniotic fluid may provide new source of stem cells for future therapies

...mice was examined every four weeks, and after 16-18 weeks the blood-forming organs (bone marrow, spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes) of the mice were dissected. ...d of this new group of irradiated mice was analyzed and their hematopoietic organs examined after 10-13 weeks. The secondary transplants with mouse AFKL cells...

Novocell awarded seminal stem cell patent

...t only pancreatic type cells, which Novocell is developing for use as a cell therapy for diabetes, but also other endoderm lineage-derived tissues and organs such as lungs, intestine, liver, thymus and thyroid. "This composition patent is a milestone achievement for Novocell and is the culmination of e...

Eye cells believed to be retinal stem cells are misidentified

...able of producing large numbers of adult cells, such as retinal cells. Researchers believe that stem cells offer the promise of regenerating tissue in organs such as the eye, brain and heart, damaged by trauma or disease. The new findings suggest that research on cell therapies to restore blindness shoul...

Two innovative University of Texas at Austin biologists become HHMI Early Career Scientists

...iseases that affect humans. John Wallingford, an associate professor of molecular cell and developmental biology, studies morphogenesishow tissues, organs and organisms develop their shapes. His interest in this field began as an undergraduate when he manipulated frog embryos and watched them develop in ...

Gorilla gets MRI at Bronx Zoo

... An MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) is a frequently used technique for imaging structures within the body. The method is more effective at imaging organs and soft tissue than the CT scan (computed tomography) and is often used in neurological scans. The scans are achieved with a powerful magnetic field ...
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