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Nicotine in Biological News

Skin color clue to nicotine dependence

Higher concentrations of melanin -- the color pigment in skin and hair -- may be placing darker pigmented smokers at increased susceptibility to nicotine dependence and tobacco-related carcinogens than lighter skinned smokers, according to scientists. "We have found that the concentration of mel...

Researchers find link between nicotine addiction and autism

COLUMBUS, Ohio Scientists have identified a relationship between two proteins in the brain that has links to both nicotine addiction and autism. The finding has led to speculation that existing drugs used to curb nicotine addiction might serve as the basis for potential therapies to alleviate the...

Study links nicotine with breast cancer growth and spread

PHILADELPHIA A study published in Cancer Research , a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, suggests a possible role for nicotine in breast tumor development and metastases. The study, conducted by researchers at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, is among the first...

New genetic research into nicotine addiction shows promise for personalized treatment

Whether a smoking-cessation drug will enable you to quit smoking may depend on your genes, according to new genotyping research from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH). The study, published in the September issue of the journal Biological Psychiatry, found that the enzyme known to m...

Children of smokers have more than 5 times higher levels of a nicotine toxin

Children who have at least one parent who smokes have 5.5 times higher levels of cotinine, a byproduct of nicotine, in their urine, according to a study by researchers from Warwick Medical School at the the University of Warwick, and the University of Leicester, published online ahead of print in...

Re-analysis of cigarettes confirms tobacco companies increased addictive nicotine 11 percent

A reanalysis of nicotine yield from major brand name cigarettes sold in Massachusetts from 1997 to 2005 has confirmed that manufacturers have steadily increased the levels of this agent in cigarettes. This independent analysis, based on data submitted to the Massachusetts Department of Public Healt...

Successful lung cancer surgery not enough to break nicotine dependence in many smokers

A new study has found that close to half of 154 smokers who had surgery to remove early stage lung cancer picked up a cigarette again within 12 months of their potentially curative operation, and more than one-third were smoking at the one year mark. Sixty percent of patients who started smoking a...

Smokers invite to test vaccine against nicotine addiction

UCSF's Habit Abatement Clinic is testing a vaccine that enlists help from the immune system to keep nicotine away from the brain. The vaccine is designed to help smokers quit and to limit the urge to start smoking again. Called NicVax, the investigational vaccine is being developed by Nabi Bioph...

Blood test predicts success of quitting smoking using the nicotine patch

A blood test may enable doctors to predict which smokers using the nicotine patch are likely to experience the least amount of cravings and have the highest probability of success in quitting cigarettes, according to the results of a study in the June issus of the Journal of Clinical Pharmacology a...

Prenatal nicotine exposure reduces breathing response of newborns...

A 37-year-old-mother, who gave birth to a low-weight preemie at 24 weeks, exhibited the first-found link in a human between bacteria found in the mouth and the amniotic fluid of a woman in preterm labor. Using new DNA finger-printing techniques to find bacteria that cannot be cultured and grown ...

Simple drug treatment may prevent nicotine-induced SIDS: Study

...s at McMaster University, exposure of the fetus to nicotine results in the inability to respond to decreases i...ication 'glibenclamide' can reverse the effects of nicotine exposure, increasing the newborn's ability to resp...ng moments of apnea or asphyxia is impaired due to nicotine exposure. During those episodes, specific prote...

Simulating pharmaceutical and personal care product transport

...luded non-equilibrium sorption in macropores using data from experiments on the transport of three PPCPs (atenolol, carbamazepine, and triclosan), the nicotine metabolite cotinine, and the strongly sorbing dye rhodamine WT applied in LMB. The study was financed by grants from the European Union (ERAPharm, pro...

New mediator of smoking recruits

...opontin expression could be stimulated directly by nicotine treatment. In addition, expressing osteopontin in...article from Prasse et al "suggest[s] that chronic nicotine stimulation induced by cigarette smoking promotes ...oduction]." Osteopontin and cellular receptors for nicotine may therefore be new targets for treating smoking ...

Free online toolkit provides standard measures for genome and population studies

... as height, weight and waist circumference; and alcohol, tobacco and other substances, with measures such as alcohol maximum drinks in 24 hours , and nicotine dependence. In addition to measures under each category, the toolkit includes information about each measure such as the rationale for its selectio...

Genetic irregularities linked to higher risk of COPD among smokers

..., only two single letter changes in DNA - (called single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs, or "snips") emerged as significant. Both were located near a nicotine receptor on chromosome 15 that has already been associated with lung cancer and other respiratory disorders. The SNPs also appeared with significant f...

1 drug may help people both lay down the drink and put out the cigarette

...co use are the leading causes of death in alcoholics. "A medication such as varenicline, which may target shared biological systems in alcohol and nicotine use, holds promise as a treatment for individuals with both disorders" according to McKee. McKee said that 80% of participants receiving vareniclin...

Nicotine activates more than just the brain's pleasure pathways

...ystem activity in mice, the researchers found that nicotine sends signals directly to the brain's sensory syst...ings complement what is known about the effects of nicotine in the dopamine pathway. This is the classic pleas...r study in no way contradicts prior findings about nicotine and dopamine," Oliveira-Maia said. "Our findings a...

Caltech scientists engineer supersensitive receptor, gain better understanding of dopamine system

...holine receptor" to make it more sensitive to both nicotine and acetylcholine. (Acetylcholine is another of th...or is kicked into action by the presence of either nicotine or acetylcholine--two of the keys that fit its bio...ctive. In fact, the researchers note, low doses of nicotine affect mice with these hypersensitive receptors in...

Penn biophysicists create new model for protein-cholesterol interactions in brain and muscle tissue

...volved in inflammation, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, epilepsy, the effect of general anesthetics and addiction to alcohol, nicotine and cocaine. Moreover, the results apply to closely related receptors that bind serotonin and GABA, which are neurotransmitters directly involved i...

Bitter-tasting nectar and floral odors optimize outcrossing for plants

...r herbivores. But given the right timing and dose, nicotine in the nectar and the attractant, benzyl acetone, ...d tests, the researchers showed that the amount of nicotine in the floral nectar of wild tobacco influenced po...A interference) that were unable to produce either nicotine or benzyl acetone; the latter has a sweet odor we ...

If your first cigarette gave you a buzz and you now smoke, a gene may be to blame

...rts an association between a variant in the CHRNA5 nicotine receptor gene, initial smoking experiences, and cu... of Michigan Medical School and founder of the U-M nicotine Research Laboratory. "If cigarette smoking is sustained, nicotine addiction can occur in a few days to a few months,...

Michael J. Fox Foundation Funds $1.1 Million for Cutting-edge Approaches to Parkinson's Disease

...otect against PD. The researchers hope to elucidate the mechanisms by which nicotine may protect dopamine neurons through development and validation of a screening test for small molecules that could increase nicotine receptor expression in the brain. Marcus Unger, MD, and Wolfgang Oertel...

Scripps Research Institute awarded patent for remarkable chemical technology

...ts. Using copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, Scripps Research scientists have already identified molecules with potential for fighting AIDS, nicotine addiction, and other conditions. The reactions' gluing powers have also proven extremely effective at binding fluorescent alkyne dyes to proteins and ...

Hunger hormone: Makes food more attractive

...dvertisements geared towards children, in the same way that results proving nicotine to be addictive spurred the current public policy towards nicotine ...

Researchers 'see' structure of open nicotinic acetylcholine ion channels

...tion, in the form of charged particles, or ions, across the cell membrane. Although normally closed, when the ion channel encounters acetylcholine or nicotine on the surface of the cell the interaction causes the gate to open, allowing positively charged ions (called cations) to flow into the cell. Scien...

Protein protects lung cancer cells from efforts to fix or kill them

...healthy cells ability to fix themselves when radiation or chemicals such as nicotine damage their DNA, according to a University of Florida study to be publishe...s of lung cancer patients who smoke. Previous UF research has shown that nicotine activates the protein, which helps tumor cells live long past their natural...

New research explains link between smoking and SIDS

... episodeis dramatically compromised by exposure to nicotine in the womb, even light to moderate amounts. Th...nism doesnt work as it should in babies exposed to nicotine during pregnancy. The research, which was condu...ptation of life outside the wombis impaired due to nicotine exposure. At birth, the nervous control of the...

American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- Dec. 19, 2007

...acks the combustion products. However, moist snuff products still contain significant levels of carcinogens, and users should stop, perhaps via use of nicotine replacement therapy, rather than switch from one risky product to another, the paper advises. MTS ARTICLE #3 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Progress and ...

Overexcited neurons not good for cell health

...s on protein folding were found to occur upon exposure to the common toxins nicotine and lindane (a pesticide). Whether due to genetic mutation or exposure ...gregation. The effects were similar when the researchers introduced both nicotine (a neurostimulant) and lindane (an inhibitor of GABA, causing overstimulate...

New studies on schizophrenia, depression, trauma and autism highlight annual meeting

...irls. (Embargoed until 9:00 a.m. EST December 8) nicotine Addiction Might be Controlled by Influencing Pleas...us system that inhibits neurons in the brain and nicotine dependence. Researchers discovered that nicotine has significant effects on brain GABA, a finding w...

How does the opioid system control pain, reward and addictive behavior?

...e activities of this compound (Matthes 1996). Importantly, a series of studies has shown that the reinforcing properties of alcohol, cannabinoids, and nicotine each of which acts at a different receptor are also strongly diminished in these mutant mice. The genetic approach therefore highlights mu-receptors...

Nicotine may accelerate atherosclerosis, may be as dangerous as tar

...erosclerosis in mice correlated with the levels of nicotine -- the higher the nicotine, the more disease. ...s that the problem with cigarettes is tar and that nicotine is safe. That's why you can buy nicotine gum or patches to help you stop smoking. Our study...

American Chemical Society's Weekly Presspac -- Aug. 29, 2007

...mise for the treatment of Alzheimers, Parkinsons, stroke and schizophrenia. In the continuing search for better drugs, even familiar compounds such as nicotine and coffee are being explored for their potential memory-enhancing effects, Rovner notes. Despite their promise, theres growing regulatory and ethi...

Nicotine rush hinges on sugar in neurons

... When nicotine binds to a neuron, how does the cell know to send the signal that announces...anding one. Some researchers had suggested that when a chemical such as nicotine binds to an ion channel protein on the cell surface, the protein starts a “...

NIDA study identifies genes that might help some people abstain from smoking

...m and a team led by Dr. Jed Rose at the Center for nicotine and Smoking Cessation Research at Duke University ...es in dependence to other drugs also contribute to nicotine dependence.? Genes that harbor variants that c...bruary 2007 meeting of the Society for Research on nicotine and Tobacco. “These findings provide ample ju...

Mechanism of nicotine's learning effects explored

... While nicotine is highly addictive, researchers have also shown t...le was known about the detailed mechanism by which nicotine exerts its learning-enhancing effects. Now, r...searchers have discovered important details of how nicotine adjusts the signaling properties of neuronal wirin...

Indicators for risk of heart disease are higher in passive smokers

...nd-hand smoke. Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine that indicates levels of nicotine intake. Since nicotine is highly specific for tobacco smoke, blood serum ...

Bioluminescence at the service of a novel cerebral imaging technique

... Because of these characteristics, the new tracer can demonstrate new physiological phenomena related to calcium activity. Thus the activation by nicotine of pedunculate bodies (an important structure for learning and olfactory memory in the Drosophila) induces a secondary response which is delayed by ab...

Smokers quit after damage to brain region

...said. The finding that one small region could be the Achilles' heel of smoking addiction is especially surprising, given the brain-wide effects of nicotine on the nervous system. The study considered smokers with damage that did not include the insula, but the likelihood of disrupting the smoking add...

New research identifies gene important for nicotine's effects on the brain

... and her colleagues at Yale University, found that nicotine can increase activity of a molecule called CREB in...ocks CREB activity in the nucleus accumbens blocks nicotine reward. "We and other researchers have begun to m...rk explored how the brain changes when it receives nicotine and, therefore, focused on the dopamine system in ...
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