Caltech scientists reveal how neuronal activity is timed in brain's memory-making circuits
PASADENA, Calif.Theta oscillations are a type of prominent brain rhythm that orchestrates neuronal
activity in the hippocampus, a brain area critical for the formation of new memories. For several decades these oscillations were believed to be "in sync" across the hippocampus, timing the firing of...
Iron is involved in prion disease-associated neuronal demise
Imbalance of iron homeostasis is a common feature of prion disease-affected human, mouse, and hamster brains, according to a new study by Dr. Neena Singh and colleagues at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, alongside collaborators from Creighton University. These findings, publish...
Chemist receives NIH funding to unravel tricks of neuronal wiring
Joshua Maurer, Ph.D., assistant professor of chemistry in Arts & Sciences, has received a four-year, $1,216,000 grant from the National Institute of Mental Health for research titled "Unraveling Development: New Materials for Understanding Neuronal
Maurer's long term objective is to d...
Claudin 11 stops the leaks in neuronal myelin sheaths
Devaux and Gow demonstrate how a tight junction protein called claudin 11 makes the neuronal
myelin sheath a snug fit. The study will be published in the December 1, 2008 issue of the Journal of Cell Biology ( www.jcb.org ).
Like the rubber coating on a copper wire, the myelin sheatha membran...
How neuronal activity leads to Alzheimer's protein cleavage
Amyloid precursor protein (APP), whose cleavage product, amyloid-b (Ab), builds up into fibrous plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients, jumps from one specialized membrane microdomain to another to be cleaved, report Sakurai et al.
Although there is no definitive evidence that Ab ...
Researchers uncover mechanism of action of antibiotic able to reduce neuronal cell death in brain
Mechanism of action of compound found to induce neurotransmitter activity in brain cells
The findings may lead researchers to develop potential novel therapies to treat Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntingtons disease, epilepsy, stroke/ischemia, d...
Carnegie Mellon scientists investigate initial molecular mechanism that triggers neuronal firing
BOSTONCarnegie Mellon University chemists have solved a decade-long molecular mystery that could eventually help scientists develop drug therapies to treat a variety of disorders, including epilepsy and Alzheimers disease. Using intensive theoretical and computational calculations, Carnegie Mellon...
Proteasome activator enhances survival of Huntington's disease neuronal model cells
To function, each living cell needs both to build new and to degrade old or damaged proteins. To accomplish that, a number of intracellular systems work in concert to keep the cell healthy and from clogging up with damaged proteins. When proteins or peptides mutate, they can present major problems ...
Widely used iron nanoparticles exhibit toxic effects on neuronal cells
Researchers at UC San Diego have discovered that iron-containing nanoparticles being tested for use in several biomedical applications can be toxic to nerve cells and interfere with the formation of their signal-transmitting extensions.
"Iron is an essential nutrient for mammals and most life f...
Cocaine high caused by interference in neuronal receiving stations
Researchers have found evidence for a fundamental molecular mechanism underlying the hyperactive high of cocaine. In studies with rats, they have traced the effect to interactions between two types of receiving stations in neurons for nerve signals from their neighbors. The researchers' studies in ...
Molecular Partners Required For Appropriate Neuronal Gene Repression
Oregon Health & Science University researchers have identified some of the key factors that prevent the repair of brain damage caused by multiple sclerosis (MS), complications of premature birth, and other diseases and conditions. The findings offer important clues about why the nervous system ...
Scientists track impact of DNA damage in the developing brain
...cle arrest rather than apoptosis.
In the hippocampus, which plays a role in memory and emotion, investigators reported abnormal gene expression and neuronal
function. Some neurons were eventually replaced by scar tissue in a process known as gliosis. Overall changes in the hippocampus mimicked those found ...
Alzheimer's disease drug treats traumatic brain injury, report GUMC researchers
...n animal models of traumatic brain injury and protected the animals against motor and cognitive deficits.
"The goal for both diseases is to prevent neuronal
cell death, and this study suggests that one therapy could possibly work for both," says the study's lead author, neuroscientist Mark Burns, PhD, an a...
22nd Congress of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology, Sept. 12-16, 2009, Turkey
...vel, the goal of neuropsychopharmacology is to develop specific therapeutic agents to regulate the biological mechanisms of mental disorders, i.e. the neuronal
interactions that give rise to these disorders. For this purpose, neuropsychopharmacology investigates the effect of drugs on the central nervous syst...
Work in mice will contribute to the study of hereditary diseases that lead to blindness
...ity of Granada (Spain) have used a technique consisting of the induction of neuronal
for intense light exposure in the mouse's retina that will be helpful for t...
Neural stem cell differentiation factor discovered
... oligodendrocytes form the myelin layer around axons in order to accelerate neuronal
signal transmission. But how does a neural stem cell know" which way it is ... of tumors, especially in the human brain. EGFL7 might also be applied as a neuronal
differentiation factor in ischemic insults or neurodegenerative diseases su...
Further gene mutations linked to autism risk
... disrupt biological functions," said study leader Hakon Hakonarson. "We identified additional autism susceptibility genes, many of which belong to the neuronal
cell adhesion molecule family involved in the development of brain circuitry in early childhood." He added that the team discovered many "private" gen...
Scientists capture the first image of memories being made
...ene expression and yet can occur in a synapse-specific manner. This study provides evidence that a mechanism that mediates this gene expression during neuronal
plasticity involves regulated translation of localized mRNA at stimulated synapses. These findings are instrumental in establishing the molecular proc...
UC Davis researchers visualize formation of a new synapse
...ed sites of cell adhesion that are initially formed during development of the nervous system. Formation of viable synapses is crucial for establishing neuronal
circuits that underlie behavior and cognition," said study senior author Philip Washbourne, a UC Davis postdoctoral fellow when the study was initiate...
Huntington's disease deciphered
...ynaptic connections, requiring a robust transport system.
"Inhibition of neuronal
transport is enough to explain what is happening in Huntington's," said Bra...to die back, leading to reduced transmissions, more dying back and eventual neuronal
This mechanism also explains the late onset of the disease,...
Protein linked to mental retardation controls synapse maturation, plasticity, CSHL team finds
...rocesses that establish and modify the function of neuronal
That has been a major objective of s...ic OPHN1) causes a potentially important change in neuronal
structure. Small knob-like features, called dendr... the actin cytoskeleton and affect many aspects of neuronal
development," Van Aelst notes. The actin cytoskel...
Capturing the birth of a synapse
...ation in the open-access journal Neural Development .
"We've caught two neuronal
cells in the act of forming a synapse," said principle investigator Philip ...s system, and formation of appropriate synapses is crucial for establishing neuronal
circuits that underlie behavior and cognition. Minor irregularities can lea...
A new mouse model provides insight into genetic neurological disorders
...legs in humans.
Scientists have created a mouse to help understand human neuronal
diseases that impair a patient's ability to feel and to move their arms and...rchers access to new materials to understand how this gene influences human neuronal
When the researchers made the same mutation in two different...
Investigating the development of mechanosensitivity
...o show that neurons develop their sensitivity to touch and pain during different developmental phases but always coincidentally with the growth of the neuronal
pathways. ( EMBO Journal , 2009, doi:10.1038/emboj.2009.73).*
The sensory neurons, which are sensitive to touch and pain, are located in the dorsal...
Identification of a key molecular pathway required for brain neural circuit formation
... brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons. To correctly form neuronal
circuits, the developing axons (a long extension of a neuron) require attra...ate set of targets is very complex. Inappropriate wiring or damage to these neuronal
connections leads to severe abnormalities of the nervous system. "Knowing t...
Development of an artificial simulator of the nervous system to do research into diseases
...act that the simulator "compiles" the behaviour of a neuron or several types of neurons in a first stage and next, it simulates medium and great-scale neuronal
systems based on these pre-compiled models.
"This fact means an essential technological advance and indisputably affects the quality of nervous sim...
Cell's split personality is a major discovery into neurological diseases
... toxic effects of glutamate is that it overexcites neuronal
cells via activation of glutamate receptors and th...ignaling pathways in glial cells that then lead to neuronal
Glial cells are the most abundant cel...ster side that allows them to induce or exacerbate neuronal
death in pathological conditions.
Flow of potassium into cells implicated in schizophrenia
...t for its potential role in sustaining the type of neuronal
firing that supports the higher mental functions d...tically changed activity in rodent brains toward a neuronal
firing pattern that may be important for thinking ...chizophrenia could result in "abnormally increased neuronal
excitability, runaway circuit activity and ineffic...
CCNY, CSHL biologists find birdsong of isolates reverts to norm over several generations
...different species develop different song cultures," Professor Tchernichovski added.
Future research could show whether "changes in gene expression, neuronal
reorganization or neurogenesis associated with song development show orderly multigenerational progression during the evolution of song culture."
Alzheimer cell death in Zebrafish: Demise of neurons observed live for the first time
...lzheimer's disease. Until now, it has only been possible to investigate the neuronal
devastation in post mortem animal models, and by using complicated methods....in western society. The search for causal therapies is sorely needed, since neuronal
cell death in the brains of Alzheimer's patients can still not be defeated....
Mollusks taste memories to build shells
...centers of excitation in the retina, for example are surrounded by areas of inhibition. Local activation/lateral inhibition applies to many types of neuronal
activity and underlies the extreme sensitivity of our eyes and visual system to edges the activation of cells at an edge inhibits neighboring cells, ...
Computer simulations explain the limitations of working memory
...ory and of how the billions of neurons in the brain interact. One of the findings they have made with this 'model brain' is a mechanism in the brain's neuronal
network that restricts the number of items we can normally store in our working memories at any one time to around two to seven.
Working memory, ...
A splice of life
...rnative arrangements. Defects in this process can have disasterous repercussions in the form of genetic disorders," said Pomeranz Krummel, adding that neuronal
development can be particularly affected when things go awry. Indeed, defects in this process have recently been implicated in various human neurologi...
Crabs' memory of pain confirmed by Queen's academic
... crabs to get out of their shells were those which had received shocks, indicating that the experience is unpleasant for them. This shows that central neuronal
processing occurs rather than the response merely being a reflex.
Hermit crabs are known to prefer some species of shells more strongly than others...
Lipid droplets lead a Spartin existence
... Spartin, a protein linked to the neuronal
disease Troyer syndrome, was thought to function i...on.
A truncated form of Spartin found in a rare neuronal
disease called Troyer syndrome didn't localize to ...precedents of defects in lipid turnover triggering neuronal
disorders, such as mutations in the phospholipase ...
MIT: Why we have difficulty recognizing faces in photo negatives
...eyes, so the new findings could help explain why autistic people have such difficulty recognizing faces, says Sinha.
The findings also suggest that neuronal
responses in the brain may be based on these relationships between different parts of the face. The team found that when they scanned the brains of pe...
Springer to publish Neurotoxicity Research
...d journal reporting on both basic and clinical research on classical neurotoxicity effects and mechanisms associated with neurodegeneration, necrosis, neuronal
apoptosis, nerve regeneration and other related topics. Original papers, reviews and society news are included in the journal, which is published eig...
Rett Syndrome Research Trust advisor makes significant discovery
...rpinnings and guidance of axons and dendrites (the neuronal
processes that carry information), to creating pro...CP2- deficient astrocytes could not sustain normal neuronal
growth. In fact, their experiments suggest that Me...studies of the role of glia in a broad spectrum of neuronal
diseases should lead to exciting advances in under...
Behind closed eyes
...irect measurement of electrical activity in the brain: data collected from epilepsy patients who underwent extensive testing, including measurement of neuronal
pulses in various parts of their brain, in the course of diagnosis and treatment.
An analysis of this data showed conclusively that electrical act...
Scientists uncover new class of non-protein coding genes in mammals with key functions
...egulate a variety of different cellular processes, including cell proliferation, immune surveillance, maintenance of embryonic stem cell pluripotency, neuronal
and muscle development, and gametogenesis. Further experimental evidence from several of the identified lincRNAs verified these observations.