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Neuron in Biological News

Motor neuron disease and toxic substances: Possible link?

ANN ARBOR, Mich. Motor neuron disease is a rare, devastating illness in which nerve cells that carry brain signals to muscles gradually deteriorate. One form of it, Lou Gehrigs disease or ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), is familiar to the public in the lives of scientist Stephen Hawking and ...

Deconstructing brain wiring, one neuron at a time

Researchers have long said they won't be able to understand the brain until they can put together a "wiring diagram" ?a map of how billions of neurons are interconnected. Now, researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies have jumped what many believe to be a major hurdle to preparing th...

Experience affects new neuron survival in adult brain; study sheds light on learning, memory

Experience in the early development of new neurons in specific brain regions affects their survival and activity in the adult brain, new research shows. How these new neurons store information about these experiences may explain how they can affect learning and memory in adults. A team of resea...

Discovery of agile molecular motors could aid in treating motor neuron diseases

(Philadelphia, PA) - Over the last several months, the labs of Yale Goldman, MD, PhD, Director of the Pennsylvania Muscle Institute at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, and Erika Holzbaur, PhD, Professor of Physiology, have published a group of papers that, taken together, show pro...

UCLA imaging study of children with autism finds broken mirror neuron system

New imaging research at UCLA detailed Dec. 4 as an advance online publication of the journal Nature Neuroscience shows children with autism have virtually no activity in a key part of the brain's mirror neuron system while imitating and observing emotions. Mirror neurons fire when a person perfor...

Scientists crack code for motor neuron wiring

Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researchers have deciphered a key part of the regulatory code that governs how motor neurons in the spinal cord connect to specific target muscles in the limbs. The researchers said that understanding this code may help guide progress in restoring motor neur...

How the neuron sprouts its branches

Neurobiologists have gained new insights into how neurons control growth of the intricate tracery of branches called dendrites that enable them to connect with their neighbors. Dendritic connections are the basic receiving stations by which neurons form the signaling networks that constitute the br...

MIT researcher finds neuron growth in adult brain

Despite the prevailing belief that adult brain cells don't grow, a researcher at MIT's Picower Institute for Learning and Memory reports in the Dec. 27 issue of Public Library of Science (PLoS) Biology that structural remodeling of neurons does in fact occur in mature brains. This finding means ...

Mapping neuron connections in the brain

The human brain contains from 10 to 100 billion neurons, and each has hundreds of connections with neighboring neurons. Making sense of these intricate connections is essential to understanding brain function, and the task is a monumental one. Thanks to a new theoretical approach to mapping neuro...

New research questions basic tenet of neuron function

New findings by researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center challenge one of the established views of how nerve cells communicate with one another. Every time we move, feel emotions, think or remember, the nerve cells, or neurons, in our body transmit messages to one another via chemical signa...

ISU researchers find possible treatment for spinal muscular atrophy

...lide off the list altogether. Most Spinal Muscular Atrophy sufferers -- more than 95 percent -- have a mutated or deleted gene called Survival Motor neuron 1 (SMN1) that doesn't correctly do its job of creating functional SMN proteins. Singh's solution is to replace that poor-performing gene with anothe...

Impact Factor names Cell top research journal

...n other Cell Press titles increased their impact factor in the past year: Cancer Cell (+4.627%), Current Biology (+2.258%), Immunity (+6.815%), neuron (+5.667%), Structure (+3.173%), Biophysical Journal (+1.210%), and Developmental Cell (+3.586%). The impact factor is a measure of the frequ...

Fate in fly sensory organ precursor cells could explain human immune disorder

...pIIa cells go on to become the shaft and socket cells on the exterior of the fly's external sensory organ. The pIIb, through two divisions, become the neuron and sheath internal cells of the external sensory organ. These four types of cells become the sensory cluster. When a cluster of neurons is observ...

UC Davis researchers visualize formation of a new synapse

...form and can accumulate very soon after contact between cells," Barrow said. Barrow described what the team was able to visualize: "Axons of one neuron grow toward the dendrites of neighboring neurons. As they do so, finger-like structures called filopodia extend and retract rapidly from the tip of th...

Crustacean shell with polyester creates mixed-fiber material for nerve repair

...h as those inside the body. The strength of the nerve guide is important for budding nerve cells. "This conduit serves as a guide to protect the neuron from injury," Zhang said. "If the tube is made of collagen, it's difficult to keep the conduit open because any stress and it's going to collapse." ...

Protein regulates movement of mitochondria in brain cells

... understood, at any given time about half of the mobile mitochondria in the neuron are in the process of returning to the cell body perhaps to be recycled or... critical role in regulating the movement or transport of mitochondria in neuron cells. The protein, which they dubbed hypoxia upregulated mitochondrial mov...

Huntington's disease deciphered

... show what effect activation of that enzyme has on neuron function. Huntington's disease is an adult onse...hibitor of axonal transport, the system within the neuron that shuttles proteins from the cell body where th...making more and transporting more proteins in each neuron than you need," Brady said. "But as you get older ...

Caltech scientists reveal how neuronal activity is timed in brain's memory-making circuits

...e, the spikes don't just happen any timethey pay attention to the phase of the ongoing theta oscillation. If you have access to the phase at which the neuron fired, you have additional information about where the rat was in space." When the data about neuronal firing, oscillation phase, and rat location ...

Capturing the birth of a synapse

...found one of many finger-like filopodia, or spines, that reach out from one neuron is nabbed by neuroligin molecules on the membrane of another neuron. In tur...emical synapses are the primary means for transmitting information from one neuron to the next," said Washbourne, who is a member of the UO's Institute of Neu...

Protein identified as critical to insulating the body's wiring could also become treatment target

... neuregulin-1 and another receptor, ErbB4, help keep a healthy balance between excitation and inhibition of brain cells. Their studies published in neuron in 2007 showed neuregulin-1 and ErbB4, promote inhibition at the site of inhibitory synapses in the brain by increasing release of GABA, a major inhib...

Identification of a key molecular pathway required for brain neural circuit formation

...t spinal cord injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. This new finding has been published in the current issue of the prestigious scientific journal neuron . Patricia T. Yam, Sbastien D. Langlois and Steves Morin, all at the IRCM, are listed as co-authors. The brain is composed of billions of interconn...

How an enzyme tells stem cells which way to divide

...ain, containing aPKC (atypical protein kinase C) continues as a stem cell, while the other domain with Miranda becomes a differentiated cell such as a neuron that forms the central nervous system. Prehoda and co-author Scott X. Atwood, who studied in Prehoda's lab and recently earned his doctorate, descr...

Development of an artificial simulator of the nervous system to do research into diseases

...ossible thanks to the fact that the simulator "compiles" the behaviour of a neuron or several types of neurons in a first stage and next, it simulates medium ... EDLUT means "an innovative version with regard to other simulators such as neuron and GENESIS", in the words of Ros, and those companies of the biotechnologi...

Brain protein central to both Parkinson's, drug addiction identified

...es and into the space surrounding dopamine neurons. That's where another molecule known as the dopamine transporter picks it up and brings it into the neuron itself. When the team blocked or genetically removed oct3 in mice, the dopamine neurons in the brains did not die despite the presence of MPTP in t...

Autopilot guides proteins in brain

... control over neurons for basic research or for treatment of neurological disorders. Potentially, scientists could target only dendrites or axons in a neuron so as to study its outgoing or incoming impulses. In addition to these potential applications, the study is notable for its contribution to the und...

Jefferson researcher awarded Landenberger Foundation grant for ALS research

...making decisions. The Foundation's mission is to be at the cutting edge of medical research." ALS, commonly known as Lou Gehrig's disease or motor neuron disease, is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and the spinal cord. Motor neurons reach from the brain to ...

The secret to chimp strength

...icate tasks like threading a needle, and progressively more for tasks that require more force. Conversely, since chimps have fewer motor neurons, each neuron triggers a higher number of muscle fibers. So using a muscle becomes more of an all-or-nothing proposition for chimps. As a result, chimps often end u...

ORNL, St. Jude track neurons to predict and prevent disease

...lyze these vast amounts of data in record time. "St. Jude has identified neuron shape abnormalities and neuron migration issues that are linked to specific diseases," said Shaun Gleason ...

Tiny but toxic: MBL researchers discover a mechanism of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease

... the loss of functional connections. It's when the neuron is no longer talking to its targets that you start...nery for their release) from place to place in the neuron on microtubule tracks. Brady's findings are co...rotransmission at the synapse the point where the neuron connects to its target. "Disruptions in the fas...

Lipid droplets lead a Spartin existence

...aul Bieniasz points to precedents of defects in lipid turnover triggering neuronal disorders, such as mutations in the phospholipase NTE causing motor neuron disease. ...

Addiction: Insights from Parkinson's disease

...nces develop various addictions when undergoing medical treatment. The review, published in this week's (February 25) issue of the scientific journal neuron , illustrates that persistently elevated levels of dopamine in the brain promote the development and maintenance of addictive behaviours. Addictio...

Researchers generate functional neurons from somatic cells

...uggest the feasibility of using these cells to explore how changes in motor neuron activity contributes to the degeneration of these cells underlying these di...rchers compared the ability of different human cell lines to generate motor neuron progenitors and fully differentiated motor neurons. "These findings support...

Behind closed eyes

...e and resting states. But fMRI is an indirect measurement of brain activity; it can't catch the nuances of the pulses of electricity that characterize neuron activity. Together with Prof. Itzhak Fried of the University of California at Los Angeles and a team at the EEG unit of the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medi...

Weizmann Institute scientists show extra copies of a gene carry extra risk

... suffered from bone deformation as well. Reiner: 'Several brain diseases, including schizophrenia, epilepsy and autism, have been linked to faulty neuron migration, and recent research has hinted that some of these may involve variations in gene number. Our study is the first to demonstrate the effects ...

I feel your pain: Neural mechanisms of empathy

...sophisticated brain-imaging technique to try and answer this question. The research, published by Cell Press in the January 29th issue of the journal neuron , provides insight into brain mechanisms involved in empathy. Brain-imaging studies have shown similar patterns of brain activity when subjects fee...

Game of two halves leads to brain asymmetry

... A tug-of-war between the two sides of the brain causes it to become asymmetrical, according to research published today in the journal neuron . Asymmetry in the brain is thought to be important to enable the two hemispheres to specialise and operate more efficiently. Left-right asymmetry ...

Mayo Clinic: Brain disorder suggests common mechanism may underlie many neurodegenerative diseases

...afficking cargo efficiently over the lifetime of a neuron is fundamentally important, says Dr. Farrer. Di...e, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a motor neuron disease also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, the mo...atients with frontotemporal dementia or with motor neuron disease. What these clumps represent is not known,...

Chemist receives NIH funding to unravel tricks of neuronal wiring

...o build a substrate that looks like what a growing neuron would encounter in the brain as it goes from the e...e can watch in real time, with a microscope, how a neuron is guided through this pattern." Their finding...ebrafish's neurobiological milieu. By watching the neuron grow in real time, he will be able to determine ex...

Impaired energy metabolism linked with initiation of plaques in Alzheimer's brain

... an initiating molecular mechanism in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study, published by Cell Press in the December 26th issue of the journal neuron , provides new information about generation of damaging amyloid β (Aβ) plaques within the AD brain and underscores the importance of develop...

Neural mechanisms of value bias in the human visual cortex

...me can influence how visual information is processed in the human brain. The study, published by Cell Press in the December 26th issue of the journal neuron , provides insight into how the visual centers encode more valuable stimuli at the expense of less valuable alternatives. Acquisition and evaluatio...
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