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Neural in Biological News

Identification of a key molecular pathway required for brain neural circuit formation

Montral, May 15, 2009 The research group of Dr. Frdric Charron, a researcher at the Institut de recherches cliniques de Montral (IRCM), has made a discovery which could help treat spinal cord injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. This new finding has been published in the current issue of the ...

Early brain activity sheds new light on the neural basis of reading

Most people are expert readers, but it is something of an enigma that our brain can achieve expertise in such a recent cultural invention, which lies at the interface between vision and language. Given that the first alphabetic scripts are thought to have been invented only around four to five tho...

Creating ideal neural cells for clinical use

LA JOLLA, Calif., April 13, 2009 -- Investigators at the Burnham Institute for Medical Research (Burnham) have developed a protocol to rapidly differentiate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into neural progenitor cells that may be ideal for transplantation. The research, conducted by Alexei Ters...

Low levels of vitamin B12 may increase risk for neural tube defects

Children born to women who have low blood levels of vitamin B12 shortly before and after conception may have an increased risk of a neural tube defect, according to an analysis by researchers at the National Institutes of Health, Trinity College Dublin, and the Health Research Board of Ireland. ...

Ex vivo neural stem cell expansion

In the March 1 issue of G&D, Dr. Christopher Fasano (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center) and colleagues lend new mechanistic insight into the effective generation of neural stem cells outside of the neurogenic niche. Their upcoming paper demonstrates that the polycomb group protein, Bmi-1, ...

I feel your pain: Neural mechanisms of empathy

Is it possible to share a pain that you observe in another but have never actually experienced yourself? A new study uses a sophisticated brain-imaging technique to try and answer this question. The research, published by Cell Press in the January 29th issue of the journal Neuron , provides insig...

Obesity starts in the head? 6 newly discovered genes for obesity have a neural effect

The international GIANT (Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Parameters) consortium works on the discovery of obesity genes. So far, the scientists have analyzed two million DNA variations in 15 genome-wide association studies with a total of more than 32,000 participants. The hereby identifie...

MIT aids creation of neural prosthetic devices

CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--MIT researchers have developed a new algorithm to help create prosthetic devices that convert brain signals into action in patients who have been paralyzed or had limbs amputated. The technique, described in a paper published as the cover article in the October edition of the ...

Left-right wiring determined by neural communication in the embryonic worm

Most animals appear symmetrical at first glance, but we're full of internal lop-sidedness. From the hand used to pick up a pencil or throw a baseball, to where language is generated in the brain, to the orientation of our internal organs, humans are a glut of asymmetries. Worms aren't so different:...

Detailed 3-D image catches a key regulator of neural stem cell differentiation in action

Researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in collaboration with scientists at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) took a high resolution "action shot" of a protein switch that plays a crucial role in the development of the nervous system. Their findings, published in the D...

Making a face: A new and earlier marker of neural crest development

The fate of cells that go on to form the face, skull and nerve centers of the head and neck in vertebrates is determined much earlier in development than previously thought, and is independent of interaction with other forming tissues, according to a recent study published in the journal Nature. ...

New insights into neural tube defects

Environmental and genetic factors lead to neural tube defects in 1 in every 1,000 births and cause 1 in 20 of every spontaneous abortion. One cause of these defects is the failure of cells within the neural tube to migrate to the middle of the developing neural tube. A study in this week's iss...

Brain size may depend upon how neural cells are cleaved

Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers have discovered a novel way in which the brain size of developing mammals may be regulated. They have identified a signaling pathway that controls the orientation in which dividing neural progenitor cells are cleaved during development. The way these ce...

Gambling monkeys give insight into neural machinery of risk

Duke University Medical Center neurobiologists have pinpointed circuitry in the brains of monkeys that assesses the level of risk in a given action. Their findings -- gained from experiments in which they gave the monkeys a chance to gamble to receive juice rewards -- could give insights into why h...

Researchers discover stem cell 'guide' that may be key for targeting neural stem cell treatments

UC Irvine School of Medicine researchers have discovered how new neurons born from endogenous neural stem cells are sent to regions of the brain where they can replace old and dying cells, a finding that suggests how stem cell therapies can be specifically targeted to brain regions affected by neur...

Gene keeps neural cells on correct developmental path

Embryonic stem cells with identical genomes grow into distinctive tissues, such as heart, bone, and brain. At one time, scientists believed the differences among cell types arose from various sets of genes switched on inside developing cells. Then, studies showed that adult neurons uniquely lack a ...

Abnormal brain circuits may prevent movement disorder

...ere were two places along the motor pathway that seemed to stop the flow of neural signals from one part of the circuit to the other. Those with only one lesi...s likely that mutation carriers have a developmental problem in the flow of neural signals along this circuit such that the brain can't inhibit an unwanted mo...

Drug-proof zebrafish reveal secrets of addiction

...rs demonstrate, several of these genes are expressed in neurogenic domains of the adult fish brain these are domains where neurons are generated from neural stem cells during adulthood. According to the researchers, " These factors, which are also dramatically down-regulated by amphetamine, can serve as va...

Stem cell research: From molecular physiology to therapeutic applications

...rrow and found that these cells could differentiate not only into osteogenic, adipogenic and endothelial lineages, but also hepatocyte-like cells, and neural and erythroid cells. They remained in some tissues and organs during gestation and could give rise to different kinds of pluripotent stem cells and th...

Researchers develop 'brain-reading' methods

...rocessing tasks have their own distinct pattern of neural connections stretching across the brain, similar t...lexible than that. It has the ability to rearrange neural connections for different functions. By examining the pattern of neural connections, you can predict with a high degree of...

A genetic basis for schizophrenia

... resulting in disease. The first paper, published in the July 2009 online issue of the journal Development , followed the role of Disc1 in cranial neural crest (CNC) cells, which are multi-potent cells that give rise to multiple cell types including craniofacial cartilage and the peripheral nervous syst...

22nd Congress of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology, Sept. 12-16, 2009, Turkey

...d scientists greater insight into the brain. Today neural activity in normal and pathological conditions can...the direct targeting of specific sites of relevant neural activity, thereby maximising the efficacy of the d...rs (gren et al., 2008). Furthermore, cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in emotion processing can be m...

Brain malformations significantly associated with preterm birth, Wake Forest research shows

...rocephaly, an abnormal buildup of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles of the brain (65.2 percent); anencephaly, a defect in the closure of the neural tube during fetal development resulting in the absence of a major portion of the brain, skull, and scalp (57.7 percent); multicystic encephalomalacia,...

MS study offers theory for why repair of brain's wiring fails

...o perform their important repair function. "The researchers have made an encouraging finding that could open a new window into the cause of failed neural repair in multiple sclerosis," says Dr. Patricia O'Looney, Vice President of BioMedical Research at the National Multiple Sclerosis Society. "Understa...

Neural stem cell differentiation factor discovered

... neural stem cells represent the cellular backup of our br...erate neuronal signal transmission. But how does a neural stem cell know" which way it is supposed to develo...nalyzed the antagonistic effects of EGFL7 in adult neural stem cells. The self-renewal potential of these ce...

Researchers see evidence of memory in the songbird brain

...Whenever something unexpected and different comes along, such as the song of a new bird in the neighborhood, it's going to deform the listening bird's neural network," Clayton said. "And so the system has to basically absorb some of that, make some changes and not be overwhelmed by it. If you push the syste...

NYC science symposium marks Gruber Prize program 10th anniversary

... brain cells earned him the National Medal of Science, will speak on "Novel neural Messengers Impacting neural Diseases." All prize categories will be represented by Gruber Prize l...

Ability to literally imagine oneself in another's shoes may be tied to empathy

...said. "Although future work is needed to elucidate the nature of the relationship between empathy, spatial abilities and their potentially overlapping neural underpinnings, this work provides initial evidence that empathy might be, in part, spatially represented." "We use spatial manipulations of menta...

Tumor suppressor gene in flies may provide insights for human brain tumors

...the balance of self-renewal and differentiation of neural stem cells," said Hongyan Wang, Ph.D, assistant pr...tem cell growth in their larval brains. The flies' neural stem cells did not become neurons (nerve cells) in...l brain tumor suppressors work together to control neural stem cell divisions. "Our discovery suggests t...

UC Davis researchers visualize formation of a new synapse

...rons together like "molecular Velcro," a study lead by a team of UC Davis researchers has found. Published online in the June issue of the journal neural Development , the study is accompanied by groundbreaking images that are the first to show two neurons coming together using neuroligin to construct a...

Potential for non-invasive brain tumor treatment

...r in sufficient concentrations," Herickhoff said. The blood-brain barrier restricts the passage into the brain of any foreign matter not needed by the neural tissue. In a series of experiments in animal models and simulated tissues, the researchers demonstrated that they could build a catheter thin enou...

Brain-computer interface, developed at Brown, begins new clinical trial

...r safety and feasibility research of the BrainGate neural Interface System, which consists of an implanted b...ology that interprets these signals. The BrainGate neural System may allow people with paralysis to control ...esearchers at MGH and Brown, demonstrated that the neural signals associated with the intent to move a limb ...

Caltech scientists reveal how neuronal activity is timed in brain's memory-making circuits

... words, the hippocampus has a series of local time zones, just like we have on Earth," adds Athanassios Siapas, associate professor of computation and neural systems and Bren Scholar at Caltech. The hippocampus has long been known to be critical for the formation and maintenance of episodic memoriesi.e., ...

New guidelines to fight obesity in pregnancy issued

...llenges. These newborns are at increased risk of: Being born prematurely Fetal and neonatal death Having certain birth defects, especially neural tube defects Needing special care in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) Being obese in childhood Preterm birth is a serious health probl...

Capturing the birth of a synapse

...tudied in culture as they continued to develop -- is described in a paper placed online May 18 ahead of formal publication in the open-access journal neural Development . "We've caught two neuronal cells in the act of forming a synapse," said principle investigator Philip Washbourne, professor of biolog...

New center at Georgia Tech aims to improve recovery of soldiers with severe injuries

...emale patients, and on complex tissues that consist of nerves, a blood supply and multiple cell types. "Since the processes of bone, vascular and neural formation are naturally linked during normal tissue development, growth and repair, our approach is to harness this knowledge by developing delivery s...

Folic acid to prevent congenital heart defects

...ch . Montreal, May 14th 2009 - The Canadian policy of fortifying grain products with folic acid has already proved to be effective in preventing neural tube defects. The latest article published in the British Medical Journal by a group of researchers from the McGill Adult Unit for Congenital Heart ...

Flow of potassium into cells implicated in schizophrenia

...researchers propose that a treatment designed to inhibit just Isoform 3.1, might spare any heart-related side effects while improving the disorganized neural firing characteristic of the brain in schizophrenia. ...

Georgetown University's Howard J. Federoff, M.D., Ph.D. receives Bernard Sanberg Memorial Award

...mpa, Fla. (May 4, 2009) The American Society for neural Therapy and Repair (ASNTR), holding its 16th Annua...outstanding research contributions in the field of neural therapy and repair. The award is presented every y...earcher's contribution and its impact in advancing neural repair," said John Sladek, PhD, professor of pedia...

Brain protein central to both Parkinson's, drug addiction identified

...se to manipulate the function of oct3 depends on the source of the toxic molecules," said Tieu, who is also a scientist in the University's Center for neural Development and Disease. "You would try to lessen its effects in a condition where it makes a toxic molecule available to vulnerable cells, as illustr...
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