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Muscles in Biological News

Robo-bats with metal muscles may be next generation of remote control flyers

Tiny flying machines can be used for everything from indoor surveillance to exploring collapsed buildings, but simply making smaller versions of planes and helicopters doesn't work very well. Instead, researchers at North Carolina State University are mimicking nature's small flyers and developin...

Grouping muscles to make controlling limbs easier

With more than 30 muscles in your arm, controlling movement -- whether it's grasping a glass or throwing a baseball -- is a complex task that potentially takes into account thousands of variables. But researchers at Northwestern University have shown that it could be possible to control a limb ...

As good as it gets: Octogenarian muscles don't get stronger with exercise

BETHESDA, Md. (Mar. 31, 2009) Octogenarian women were unable to increase muscle mass after a 3-month weight lifting program targeted at strengthening the thigh muscle, according to a new study from the Journal of Applied Physiology . The results are surprising because previous studies have found ...

Motor nerve targeting to limb muscles is controlled by ephrin proteins

Montral, December 24, 2008 A study from a team of researchers including Dr. Artur Kania, Director of the Neural Circuit Development Research Unit at the IRCM, and Dr. Dayana Krawchuk, postdoctoral fellow, shows how a family of proteins present in the developing limb control nerve targeting from t...

Post-exercise caffeine helps muscles refuel

BETHESDA, Md. (July 1, 2008) Recipe to recover more quickly from exercise: Finish workout, eat pasta, and wash down with five or six cups of strong coffee. Glycogen, the muscle's primary fuel source during exercise, is replenished more rapidly when athletes ingest both carbohydrate and caffeine...

Stem-cell transplantation improves muscles in MD animal model, UT Southwestern researchers report

DALLAS Jan. 20, 2008 Using embryonic stem cells from mice, UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers have prompted the growth of healthy and more importantly, functioning muscle cells in mice afflicted with a human model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The study represents the first time t...

How molecular muscles help cells divide

New Haven, Conn. Time-lapse videos and computer simulations provide the first concrete molecular explanation of how a cell flexes tiny muscle-like structures to pinch itself into two daughter cells at the end of each cell division, according to a report in Science Express. Cell biologists at Y...

Knee injuries may start with strain on the brain, not the muscles

ANN ARBOR, Mich.---New research shows that training your brain may be just as effective as training your muscles in preventing ACL knee injuries, and suggests a shift from performance-based to prevention-based athletic training programs. The ACL, or anterior cruciate ligament, is one of the f...

When your brain talks, your muscles don't always listen

Have your neurons been shouting at your muscles again? It happens, you know. As we grow older, neurons--the nerve cells that deliver commands from our brains--have to "speak" more loudly to get the attention of our muscles to move, according to University of Delaware researcher Christopher Knig...

Stem cells from muscles can repair cartilage

Damage to articular cartilage (cartilage covering the ends of bones where they meet in a joint) frequently occurs due to injury or illness, and can lead to degenerative disease. Treatments and experimental approaches to repair this articular cartilage have achieved limited results, but currently th...

Spiders help scientists discover how muscles relax

Using muscle tissue from tarantulas, an HHMI international research scholar and his colleagues have figured out the detailed structure and arrangement of the miniature molecular motors that control movement. Their work, which takes advantage of a new technique for visualizing tissues in their natur...

Math that powers spam filters used to understand how brain learns to move our muscles

A team of biomedical engineers has developed a computer model that makes use of more or less predictable “guesstimates” of human muscle movements to explain how the brain draws on both what it recently learned and what it’s known for some time to anticipate what it needs to develop new motor sk...

Abnormal brain circuits may prevent movement disorder

...l lesion that evens the score. Dystonia is marked by uncontrolled movements, particularly twisting and abnormal postures. Studies have shown that muscles contract abnormally and patients can't stop the involuntary movements. The identification of a specific abnormality in people with the genetic mutatio...

New stem cell research could reduce number of animal experiments

...acement, Refinement & Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) to study ALS, a form of motor neurone disease in which the nerve cells that control the muscles die. This currently incurable condition causes patients to lose movement in muscles, affecting breathing and eventually causing death. Dr Subra...

Freshwater fish at the top of the food chain evolve more slowly

...than our own mouth," says Wainwright. "Whereas we have one bone that moves our jaw fish actually have two dozen separately moving bones, and lots of muscles that move those bones in a coordinated fashion." By mapping these measurements onto the centrarchid family tree together with data on what each fi...

Sticky protein helps reinforce fragile muscle membranes

...t lacks this component restored muscle membrane integrity and protected the muscles from damage. "Injecting the protein helped us prove that glycosylated dy...However, this tool also suggests that delivering functional dystroglycan to muscles may be a possible therapeutic approach for treating these muscular dystroph...

1-finger exercise reveals unexpected limits to dexterity

...k nearly seventy years about how the properties of muscles influence their everyday function, and how "redund...siological "force-velocity" properties that weaken muscles as they move faster. "That is why your bicycle ...erse of possible commands sent by the brain to the muscles is severely limited by the mechanical nature of th...

Two dietary oils, two sets of benefits for older women with diabetes

...y of any kind of supplementation that lowers body fat, because some research has suggested that the fat that leaves fat tissue ends up in the liver or muscles a condition that could lead to insulin resistance and diabetes if that fat can't be used. Neither CLA nor the linoleic acid in safflower oil is na...

Triggering muscle development -- a therapeutic cure for muscle wastage?

...mental Biology Annual Meeting in Glasgow on Wednesday 1st July 2009. When muscles are stretched during exercise, they produce a specific substance known as m...ing the size and strength of the muscle. In addition to intensive exercise, muscles need to be stimulated by growth hormone (GH) in order to release MGF. Since...

Mice run faster on high-grade oil

...evious study by the group, which looked at a range of mammal species, found that those with a relatively high n-6 fatty acid content in their skeletal muscles had a greater maximum running speed. Combined, these two studies suggest that diets enriched in these fatty acids "could also affect the maximum (or ...

Natural-born divers and the molecular traces of evolution

...udying how myoglobin, the molecule responsible for delivering oxygen to the muscles during locomotion, has been modified in seals and whales to help them cope .... This is important as divers may contain 10 times more myoglobin in their muscles than terrestrial animals. The team has also found a conspicuous increase o...

Nematode courting caught on camera

...d Paul Sternberg from the California Institute of Technology investigated the role of the excitatory neurotransmitter acetylcholine in regulating tail muscles to achieve an exploratory embrace. The video shows an intimate moment between two nematodes of the species Caenorhabditis elegans . As the hermap...

Engineering innovative solutions for 21st century medicine

...s are living longer, our bones, joints and cardiovascular systems continue to degenerate as we age. At Leeds, we are looking how to help the skeleton, muscles and cardiovascular system support our bodies as we get older, through improved prosthetic implants and technologies to help our tissues regenerate. We...

Stem cell surprise for tissue regeneration

...ot needed in adult muscle stem cells to regenerate muscles after injury. The finding challenges the current c...o make new muscles. For this, they injured the leg muscles between the knee and ankle. They were again surpri...y embryonic muscle stem cell genes, could generate muscles as well as normal muscle stem cells. They even per...

Discovery of a water snake that startles fish in a way that makes them flee into its jaws

...art." Fish ears sense the sound pressure on each side of their body. When the ear on one side detects a disturbance, it sends a message to the fishes' muscles causing its body to bend into a C-shape facing in the opposite direction so it can begin swimming away from danger as quickly as possible. Catania ...

Work of Field Museum scientist addresses question of chance in evolution

...enetically identical box-like individuals (zooids). In the simplest, most primitive cheilostomes, the soft feeding organ is squeezed out of the box by muscles pulling on a flexible membrane. The next step in diversification was calcified spines around the membrane, then fusion of the spines, then reduction o...

Discovery raises new doubts about dinosaur-bird links

...ogy who completed this work as part of her doctoral studies. "It's really strange that no one realized this before. The position of the thigh bone and muscles in birds is critical to their lung function, which in turn is what gives them enough lung capacity for flight." However, every other animal that ha...

Muscle atrophy through thick but not thin

...hers find evidence that enzyme MuRF1 selectively degrades the thick filaments in muscle, while bypassing the thin filaments. We depend on skeletal muscles because they can produce movement, but they serve another purpose too. "Skeletal muscle is a protein reservoir that can be mobilized in times of need,...

New study finds lowfat chocolate milk is effective post-exercise recovery aid for soccer players

...icate that lowfat chocolate milk is effective in the recovery and repair of muscles after intense training for these competitive soccer players. This new s...ecovery routine should replace fluids and nutrients lost in sweat, and help muscles recover. Increasingly, fitness experts consider chocolate milk an effec...

UCSF discovers new glucose-regulating protein linked with diabetes

... School have linked a specialized protein in human muscles to the process that clears glucose out of the bloo... of mechanisms of type 2 diabetes." In humans, muscles play a key role in clearing glucose from the blood... said, GLUT4 is stored inside both human and mouse muscles in a special compartment that releases it upon ins...

New therapy substitutes missing protein in those with muscular dystrophy

...rincipal investigator of the study and a professor in the Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology & Biophysics. Muscular dystrophy causes the muscles in the body to progressively weaken. Duchenne is the most common and severe form of childhood muscular dystrophy. About one of 3,500 boys are born wit...

Novel vaccine approach offers hope in fight against HIV

...is a very effective way to insert DNA into the cells of a monkey or human. In the second part of the study, the team injected AAV carriers into the muscles of monkeys, where the imported DNA produced immunoadhesins that entered the blood circulation. One month after administration of the AAV carriers, the...

UMMS researchers isolate first 'neuroprotective' gene in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

...generative disorder affecting the motor neurons in the central nervous system. As motor neurons die, the brain's ability to send signals to the body's muscles is compromised. This leads to loss of voluntary muscle movement, paralysis and eventually death from respiratory failure. In 1993, a team of researche...

Heart protein regulates blood vessel maintenance

...cells by at least one of the BMPs. "We also found that FHL2 is important in the regulation of vasomotor tone, or the contraction and relaxation of muscles in the blood vessel. This is important because dysfunction in vasomotor tone is thought to cause high blood pressure. Our study demonstrates that FHL2...

Rabbits on the back foot -- but naturally they're fighting back

...d we believe it has a faecal-oral mode of transmission." The CEO of the Invasive Animals CRC, Professor Tony Peacock, said rabbits are flexing their muscles again and are estimated to cost Australia's agricultural industries around $200 million each year as well as causing severe environmental damage. Just...

March of Dimes awards $250,000 prize to scientists unraveling the causes of muscular dystrophy

...hare the 2009 March of Dimes Prize for their pioneering work identifying the genes and proteins that cause muscular dystrophy, a disorder in which the muscles progressively degenerate. More than 250,000 Americans are affected by the nine forms of muscular dystrophy and other related neuromuscular disorders. ...

Translating the conversation between the brain and blood vessels

...fferent parts of the body. This helped explain how the brain sends blood to the gastrointestinal tract after eating, but redirects it to the heart and muscles if we start running, for example. Recently, his team has been looking at which genes regulate ion channels, microscopic gates that move chemicals i...

Caffeine appears to be beneficial in males -- but not females -- with Lou Gehrig's disease

...ateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease that damages key neurons in the brain and spinal cord. The disease causes progressive paralysis of voluntary muscles and often death within five years of symptoms. Although ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease) was discovered over a century ago, neither the cause nor a cure hav...

Caffeine appears to be beneficial in males -- but not females -- with Lou Gehrig's disease

...ateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease that damages key neurons in the brain and spinal cord. The disease causes progressive paralysis of voluntary muscles and often death within five years of symptoms. Although ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease) was discovered over a century ago, neither the cause nor a cure hav...

Jefferson researcher awarded Landenberger Foundation grant for ALS research

...ease that affects nerve cells in the brain and the spinal cord. Motor neurons reach from the brain to the spinal cord and from the spinal cord to the muscles throughout the body. The progressive degeneration of the motor neurons in ALS eventually leads to their death. When the motor neurons die, the abili...
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