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Mouth in Biological News

Have a taste for fat? Yes! A sensor in the mouth promotes preference for fatty foods

The sense of taste informs the organism about the quality of ingested food. It comprises five sub-modalities that perceive sweet, salt, sour, bitter, and umami stimuli. The possibility for an additional taste modality directed to lipid has often been suggested because many animals exhibit a sponta...

Nose odors and mouth odors: The brain distinguishes

Researchers have presented the first clear evidence that olfaction is uniquely a "dual" sense, in that the brain perceives the same odorant molecule differently if it arrives through the nose rather than the mouth. In the August 18, 2005, issue of Neuron , researchers report that the smell of choc...

Scary ancient spiders revealed in 3-D models, thanks to new imaging technique

... use them to grind up their prey before pushing it into their backward-facing mouths. The computer models also revealed that Cryptomartus hindi 's mouth appendages, called pedipalps, had tiny 'tarsal' claws attached at the end to help the creature to manipulate its prey. These claws are seen in rare mo...

Scientists discover Amazon river is 11 million years old

... of Brazil, analysed sedimentary material taken from two boreholes near the mouth of the river to calculate the age of the Amazon river and the Amazon deep s... by Petrobas, however, have lea to two new boreholes being drilled near the mouth of the Amazon - one 2.5miles (4.5km) below sea level - which resulted in ne...

Freshwater fish at the top of the food chain evolve more slowly

...ay to be good at feeding on fish you need a large mouth that can engulf the prey." The largemouth bass is ...its prey, and at the last moment will pop open its mouth kind of like popping open an umbrella and inhale...ured the fine parts of the head and mouth. "A fish mouth is much more complicated than our own mouth," says...

Microbes and their hosts -- exploring the complexity of symbiosis in DNA and cell biology

...of the bacterial community that populates the gingival crevice in the human mouth affect the ability of the natural immune defenses in the mouth to detect the presence of harmful bacteria and orchestrate their destructio...

Our brain looks at eyes first to identify a face

...he first place, the eyes and then the shape of the mouth and nose. The objective of this study, undertak... account the eyes alone ignoring the nose and the mouth but also by considering the mouth or nose separately, albeit less reliable." Ther...

Reintroduced Chinese alligators now multiplying in the wild in China

...s Bronx Zoo. The baby alligators represent a milestone for the 10-year effort to reintroduce the Chinese alligator on Chongming Island, located at the mouth of China's Yangtze River. The announcement was made at the International Congress for Conservation Biology, convened by the Society for Conservatio...

New study ranks 'hotspots' of human impact on coastal areas

...so-called hotspots of land-based impact and where these land-based sources of impact are minimal or can be ignored." The hottest hotspot is at the mouth of the Mississippi River, explained Halpern, with the other top 10 in Asia and the Mediterranean. "These are areas where conservation efforts will alm...

Research network wins approximately £5.7 million to target human and animal diseases in Africa

...y and status in the continent, but livestock production is severely limited by disease. Many of the world's worst livestock diseases, such as Foot and mouth disease, are indigenous to Africa. The Wellcome Trust grant will provide funds for SACIDS to: Develop and deliver new MSc courses in critic...

NIH expands Human Microbiome Project; funds sequencing centers and disease projects

... this study is to examine the association between the skin microbiome and acne. Zhiheng Pei, M.D., Ph.D., New York University School of Medicine mouth and digestive tract: Esophageal Adenocarcinoma $1 million This team will sample the oral cavity, esophagus, and stomach to study the relationship of...

NIH funds $9.5 million for research on HIV and the human innate immune system

... CLEVELAND Studying how the mouth wards off diseases will have implications for unde...ld help us better understand how the lining of our mouth and other parts of our body, like the skin, protec...hibit infections from HIV. How this happens in the mouth may explain the protection seen in the...

American Chemical Society weekly presspac -- June 10, 2009

...e that patients by far prefer pills and capsules to the discomfort and inconvenience of injections. But many medicines and vaccines cannot be given by mouth because they would be destroyed by stomach acid without being absorbed into the bloodstream. One promising approach is to use live bacteria, which can...

Nutricia launches Nutra Neocate, weaning product designed for cows’ milk protein allergy

...emotional well-being, but also provides weaning infants with a choice and variety of different foods, tastes and textures they need to help with their mouth and tongue co-ordination for speech development.4 "We are delighted to introduce Neocate Nutra as the first and only amino acid-based weaning prod...

Wildlife Conservation Society supports world's first study of egg-laying mammal

...teaters with long course hairs and spines. They are powerful diggers and possess short legs with long claws. The snout of the echidna ends in a tiny mouth with no teeth. Long-beaked echidnas feed on insect larvae, worms, and other invertebrates (whereas short-beaked echidnas prefer ants and termites). ...

Yeast missing sex genes undergo unexpected sexual reproduction

... benefits from associating with another organism without affecting the other. Humans are susceptible to three types of yeast infection: thrush (in the mouth and throat), vaginal infection, and a sometimes fatal systemic infection of bloodstream and organs, such as the kidney. In a paper published online...

Are you okay to kiss?

...Gram-negative ones) break down the proteins in the mouth and produce foul odor. But Prof. Mel Rosenberg and...Kiss will turn blue if a person has enzymes in the mouth produced by the Gram-positive bacteria. The presence of these enzymes means that the mouth is busily producing bacteria that foster nasty bre...

Taste, odor intervention improves cancer therapy, according to Virginia Tech, Wake Forest study

...ove the quality of life of their patients. According to Susan Duncan, professor of food science and technology at Virginia Tech, a bad taste in the mouth can lead to poor nutrition because patients avoid eating. Approximately two thirds of cancer patients who receive chemotherapy report altered senso...

Tufts University professor receives IADR Pharmacology/Therapeutics/Toxicology Award

...ltiple areas of dental drug and device therapy. Her major focus has been as principal investigator in clinical trials involving various aspects of dry mouth (xerostomia), including drug therapy for patients with Sjgren's syndrome, devices to stimulate salivary flow, and understanding why patients with dry ...

Cleft lip and palate: Genes more important than thought?

...nsulting and discriminating term 'harelip' has fortunately almost died out. In the cleft lip and palate, different tissue processes of the face and mouth area do not fuse together or do so insufficiently. This results in a gap remaining between lip, jaw and sometimes the palate. It seems likely that sev...

Scientists discover why teeth form in a single row

...s that turn genes on or off. "Knocking out" (deleting) the Osr2 gene resulted in cleft palate, a birth defect where the two halves of the roof of the mouth fail to join up properly, leaving a gap. Secondly, and surprisingly, the Osr2 "knockout" mice developed teeth outside of the normal tooth row. Jiang d...

Reversing ecology reveals ancient environments

...es to entire communities. In particular, Borenstein hopes to explore large collections of host-dwelling bacteria like those living in the human gut or mouth or the communities found in soils. The complicated and intricate ecology of these systems should now be accessible given the genomic data that researc...

Toothsome research: Deducing the diet of a prehistoric hominid

... works. It suggested that A. africanus s facial and jaw anatomy was optimized to handle stress on the premolars, teeth located farther forward in the mouth and most useful for chewing larger hard objects. But recent studies had shown that the teeth lacked the microscopic wear patterns characteristic of ch...

Origin of claws seen in 390-million-year-old fossil

...by the middle of the Cambrian Period, 100 million years before Schinderhannes lived. The fossil's head section has large bulbous eyes, a circular mouth opening and a pair of segmented, opposable appendages with spines projecting inward along their length. The trunk section is made up of 12 segments, e...

Advancement in tissue engineering promotes oral wound healing

... Tampa, Fla. (Feb. 3rd, 2009) Oral tissue engineering for transplantation to aid wound healing in mouth (oral cavity) reconstruction has taken a significant step forward with a Netherlands-based research team's successful development of a gum tissue (gin...

Scientists discover 'hot spot' for toxic HABS off Washington coastline

...-year study, scientists noted the Juan de Fuca eddy, a circular water mass rotating approximately 30 miles off the northern coast of Washington at the mouth of the Juan de Fuca Strait, frequently contained significant populations of the microscopic alga, Pseudo-nitzschia. Scientists and their students unde...

'Hot spot' for toxic harmful algal blooms discovered off Washington coast

...r in Seattle. Scientists noted that the Juan de Fuca eddy, a circular water mass rotating some 30 miles off the northern coast of Washington at the mouth of the Juan de Fuca Strait, frequently contained significant populations of the microscopic toxic alga, Pseudo-nitzschia. Over the course of the f...

Feeling your words: Hearing with your face

... New Haven, Conn. The movement of facial skin and muscles around the mouth plays an important role not only in the way the sounds of speech are made, but also in the way they are heard according to a study by scientists at Ha...

Crib-side studies help struggling newborns go home without feeding tubes

...ecial feeding tube with advanced sensors to capture the rhythm of muscular contractions throughout the entire aero-digestive tract, beginning with the mouth and ending beyond the stomach. The signals from the tube are translated into a graphic form and are evaluated. Data is then shared with a multidiscipl...

University of Leicester archaeologist uncovers evidence of ancient chemical warfare

... mine and countermine met, the Romans lost the ensuing struggle. Careful analysis of the disposition of the corpses shows they had been stacked at the mouth of the countermine by the Persians, using their victims to create a wall of bodies and shields, keeping Roman counterattack at bay while they set fire...

Uncultured bacteria found in amniotic fluids of women who experience preterm births

...d Han. These bacteria either reach the placenta through the genital tract or through the blood to the placenta. Han suspects some originate in the mouth which has hundreds of dozens of bacteria present. Among the oral bacteria is Fusobacterium nucleatum, which is ubiquitous in the mouth. Once it enter...

Facial expressions of emotion are innate, not learned, says new study

...es produced "social smiles" during the ceremony. Social smiles use only the mouth muscles whereas true smiles, known as Duchenne smiles, cause the eyes to tw...sponse to negative emotions, humans have developed a system that closes the mouth so that they are prevented from yelling, biting or throwing insults." ...

American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- Dec. 17, 2008

...hemistry Scientists in Japan are reporting an advance toward using a natural disease-fighting protein in pills or syrups that patients can take by mouth rather than injection. Their study is the first to show that coating the protein with a polymer material already in wide medical use can increase its ...

French scientist wins the Journal of Experimental Biology Outstanding Paper Prize

...lly fill up, leaving the nurses with more sugar solution than they need, taking the pressure off the hard-worked foragers. 'The colony is like a super mouth and gut' says Simpson. So what next for Dussutour? Having come to the end of her postdoctoral fellowship in Simpson's lab, Dussutour is preparing to ...

UBC researcher reveals humpback whales' dining habits -- and costs

...orces the blubber to expand around a large volume of prey-laden water, which is then filtered out through a comb-like structure called baleen when the mouth closes. Goldbogen and colleagues from the University of California, San Diego and Cascadia Research Collective, a non-profit organization in Washin...

Stomach ulcer bug causes bad breath

...o are not showing signs of stomach disease. The mouth is home to over 600 different species of bacteria,...a. "Although the presence of H. pylori in the mouth does not directly cause bad breath, it is associat...k into the relationship between H. pylori in the mouth and in the stomach. We hope to discover the role o...

Scientists achieve first tracking of salmon from headwaters in Rockies through Pacific to Alaska

...geon. In 2006, researchers tagged returning adult sockeye salmon ( www.eol.org/taxa/17154705 ) in marine waters 215 km from their destination river mouth to try to learn why up to 90% of these late-run fish changed their behaviour - leaving the ocean to migrate upriver as much as one and a half months e...

Green tea may delay onset of type 1 diabetes

...edominant antioxidant, in a laboratory mouse with type 1 diabetes and primary Sjogren's syndrome, which damages moisture-producing glands, causing dry mouth and eyes. "Our study focused on Sjogren's syndrome, so learning that EGCG also can prevent and delay insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes was a big s...

National Science Foundation grants Clemson professors award to develop nanoprobes

...ites one potential application as the ability to draw tiny samples of saliva from the glands of chemotherapy patients who often experience painful dry mouth as a side effect of their treatment. Other possible applications include extracting sweat from individual human pores or inserting new genes into cell...

Sentara begins international trial -- open at only 24 US locations

...collaborating to perform this investigational procedure of the first wave of Virginia participants. During the procedure, a tube is guided through the mouth of trial participants to access the lung and implant up to six stents smaller than a pencil eraser. The goal is to relieve breathlessness and over in...
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