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Mechanisms in Biological News

Researcher garners major award from NIH for further exploration into the mechanisms of obesity

ATLANTA Timothy J. Bartness, Regents' Professor of Biology at Georgia State University, has received a multi-million dollar award from the National Institutes of Health to further research into the biological mechanisms of obesity. The prestigious Method to Extend Research in Time (MERIT) awar...

Disease Models & Mechanisms -- selected for indexing in Medline

The Company of Biologists is pleased to announce that its latest journal, Disease Models & Mechanisms ( DMM ) (dmm.biologists.org) has been selected for inclusion in MEDLINE. MEDLINE (http://www.pubmed.gov) is the premier bibliographic database of the US National Library of Medicine (NLM). Part...

DNA repair mechanisms relocate in response to stress

Like doctors making house calls, some DNA repair enzymes can relocate to the part of the cell that needs their help, a collaborative team of scientists at Emory University School of Medicine has found. The signal that prompts relocation is oxidative stress, an imbalance of cellular metabolism c...

I feel your pain: Neural mechanisms of empathy

Is it possible to share a pain that you observe in another but have never actually experienced yourself? A new study uses a sophisticated brain-imaging technique to try and answer this question. The research, published by Cell Press in the January 29th issue of the journal Neuron , provides insig...

Neural mechanisms of value bias in the human visual cortex

New research demonstrates that bias toward a potentially more valuable outcome can influence how visual information is processed in the human brain. The study, published by Cell Press in the December 26th issue of the journal Neuron , provides insight into how the visual centers encode more valua...

Scientists reveal the key mechanisms for affinity between transient binding proteins

This release is available in Spanish . Most of the functions performed by a cell are the result of interactions between proteins, which recognise their binding partner by affinity features localized on the protein surface. There are many kinds of interactions; however, the most complicated ...

Jefferson receives $11.6M NIH grant to study novel mechanisms of heart failure

(PHILADELPHIA) Scientists at Jefferson Medical College have received a five-year, $11.6 million grant from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute to study molecular mechanisms of cardiac injury that lead to heart failure and potential repair processes that occur in the adult failing heart. ...

New treatment mechanisms for schizophrenia

Philadelphia, PA, January 8, 2008 The field of schizophrenia research has come alive with many exciting new potential approaches to treatment. From the introduction of chlorpromazine to the current day, all treatments approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration have had, at their core, a s...

New insight into the mechanisms of voltage sensing and transduction in biological processes

The voltage sensor of voltage-gated ion channels is a conserved protein domain that senses millivolt changes in transmembrane potential, to regulate ion permeation through the channel. A recently discovered protein, Ci-VSP, has a voltage sensor that is coupled not to an ion channel but to a phosph...

Scientists find clue to mechanisms of gene signaling and regulation

Scientists have discovered a pattern in the DNA sequence of the mouse genome that may play a fundamental part in the way DNA molecules regulate gene expression. The research, led by Emory University scientists along with colleagues at Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany, will be published in the A...

Corn researchers discover novel gene shut-off mechanisms

University of Delaware scientists, in collaboration with researchers from the University of Arizona and South Dakota State University, have identified unusual differences in the natural mechanisms that turn off, or "silence," genes in corn. The discovery, which was made by comparing the impact ...

Stem cells act through multiple mechanisms to benefit mice with neurodegenerative disease

Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold great promise for benefiting degenerative diseases, and do so by invoking multiple mechanisms. Such cells can be grown in a manner compatible with clinical use (i.e., without animal feeder layers) and even without the need for immunosuppression. These were a ...

Common mechanisms for viral DNA replication

How DNA replicates is a critical question for understanding life. DNA replication remains difficult to investigate in eukaryotes,where it occurs within the confines of the double-membrane nucleus. However, the process is far easier to study in the much simpler virus. In simian virus 40 (SV40), the ...

FSU biologists uncover mechanisms that shape cells for better or worse

In a landmark study, biologists at Florida State University have uncovered a specific genetic and molecular mechanism that causes cell polarity -- the asymmetric shape or composition critical to a cell's proper functioning. Their findings in fruit fly eggs may help to clarify how muscular dystrophy...

High-resolution light microscope reveals the fundamental mechanisms of nerve communication

In a simultaneous publication (Science Express, 13th April 2006), STED microscopy revealed the spatial distribution of the bruchpilot protein and aided neurobiologists from the European Neuroscience Institute and the University of Würzburgin understanding the protein's central role in the formation...

Researchers uncover mechanisms of estrogen in promoting cell death in breast cancer

A laboratory study has uncovered new details about how estrogen can activate natural pathways that kill certain breast cancer cells or tumors. The results raise the possibility that estrogen therapy may overcome resistance to certain breast cancer hormonal therapies. The study appears in the Decemb...

PET/MRI scans may help unravel mechanisms of prenatal drug damage

Scientists have demonstrated a new way to assess the potentially damaging effects of prenatal drug exposure--a technique that could also be used to monitor a fetus's response to therapeutic drugs--using sophisticated, noninvasive medical imaging tools. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's ...

The hepatitis healing power of blueberry leaves

...e found in many edible plants, suggesting it should be safe as a dietary supplement. In the meantime, the researchers now hope to explore the detailed mechanisms of how this chemical stops HCV replication. ...

NIH stimulus funding supports Emory biomedical scientists

...within three years. Vitamin D, which is lacking in many peoples' diets, may regulate inflammatory molecules that contribute to pulmonary fibrosis. mechanisms of cardiac fibrosis: NADPH oxidases are enzymes that create reactive oxygen species, and also are used by the body to fight bacteria and stimulate the...

AGU journal highlights -- Aug. 6, 2009

...driven by zonal winds are balanced by deepwater return flows that are slightly lagged in time. They point out that the study helps clarify the dynamic mechanisms that relate wind stress to ocean mass flows in the Southern Ocean and demonstrates the usefulness of the GRACE satellites in monitoring ocean mass var...

Venomous sea snakes play heads or tails with their predators

...ore importantly it may deter attack in the first place if attackers perceive the tail as the venomous snakes head," said Rasmussen. Similar defence mechanisms have been discovered in lizards, and some land snakes have developed ingenious camouflage deterrent behaviour strategies, but this defence has never b...

Hormone levels contribute to stress resilience

... Philadelphia, PA, 5 August 2009 - It is important to understand what biological mechanisms contribute to an individual's capacity to be resilient under conditions of extreme stress, such as those regularly experienced by soldiers, police, an...

New stem cell research could reduce number of animal experiments

...mendous potential in the iPS cell technology both for medical applications and in basic biology. "This technology will not only help understand the mechanisms underlying the disease, but will also reduce the numbers of animals used in research. "There is a real need to develop alternative methods for stud...

La Jolla Institute discovers novel tumor suppressor

...s enzyme activity," he said. "It's quite an unexpected finding and it definitely has the potential for helping the scientific community understand the mechanisms leading to some types of leukemia." The findings are being published online today in the journal Cancer Cell in a paper entitled "Tumor Suppressi...

Protecting cells from their neighbors

...context of the study, "it is crucial to unveil all the actors and molecular mechanisms that participate in the repression and activation of the genomes of distinct species because failures in these mechanisms are at the bases of many diseases, such as certain types of cancer." FR...

Drug-proof zebrafish reveal secrets of addiction

...artially understood. Because a major step in the development of addiction is the switch from drug use to drug abuse, we aimed to gain insight into the mechanisms triggering the initiation of addictive behaviour". The team used the mutagenic chemical ENU to generate hundreds of mutant zebrafish. From these, t...

UC San Diego engineer provides insights to decades-old DNA squabble

...he next step for Arya and his team is to study the mechanisms by which chromatin is regulated, and how those lea...ieves that a molecular-level understanding of such mechanisms could lead to the development of better drugs that... to inhibit cancer progression, though their exact mechanisms are not fully known," Arya said. "The scientif...

Parasites ready to jump

...l sites in the genome. Because this threatens the whole organism, molecular mechanisms have evolved which can repress transposon activity. Professor Klaus Frstema...ossible to tame these "selfish" genetic elements, although highly efficient mechanisms of defence have evolved. For instance, in the germ cells, which are require...

Extraterrestrial platinum was 'stirred' into the Earth

...rst time a time scale has been put on the stirring, which has important implications for the people who study the dynamics of mantle processes and the mechanisms that cause plate tectonics, earthquakes and volcanoes. Combined with some other work by the researchers on sister elements to platinum, iridium and ...

'Microfluidic palette' may paint clearer picture of biological processes

...al changes in concentration across an areain a miniature chamber about the diameter of a pinhead. The tool can be used to study the complex biological mechanisms in cells responsible for cancer metastasis, wound healing, biofilm formation and other fluid-related processes. The advantage of the NIST system, a...

New computer simulation helps explain folding in important cellular protein

...crucial proteinglycophorin Abecomes an active part of living cells. The new use of Wang-Landau could lead to a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms behind protein folding. "Our goal is to present the methodology in a clear, self-consistent way, accessible to any scientist with knowledge of Mont...

Stem cell research: From molecular physiology to therapeutic applications

... regeneration and autoimmune disease, although the mechanisms underlying the immune-modulatory effects of MSCs h...r and animal models for human diseases, to uncover mechanisms underlying these different cellular processes and ...ated from older females. Drs. Lingyi Chen works on mechanisms of early embryonic differentiation. In their revie...

Microbes and their hosts -- exploring the complexity of symbiosis in DNA and cell biology

... member of the oral consortium can affect the host responses to a wide variety of different bacteria." The term "symbiont plasticity" describes the mechanisms by which symbiotic microbes adapt to changes in host development, immune responses, and the changing external environment. Jennifer Wernegreen, PhD, f...

Stress signals link pre-existing sickness with susceptibility to bacterial infection

... increase a person's susceptibility to bacterial infection, particularly in the lungs or respiratory tract. A new study published in Disease Models & mechanisms (DMM), shows that infection with the pneumonia causing bacteria Legionella , is facilitated by an increased amount of a signaling protein that is as...

Researchers team up to provide new hope for childhood hunger

...F the most effective method by which malnourished children should be restored to health. Manary's work extends beyond RUTF. He explores the basic mechanisms by which malnutrition compromises human health, gaining new scientific insights to improve and refine his approach to combating malnutrition. Underst...

Ants more rational than humans

...ikely to arise when individuals make direct comparisons among options." Studies of how or why irrationality arises can give insight into cognitive mechanisms and constraints, as well as how collective decision making occurs. Insights such as Pratt's and Edward's could also translate into new approaches in t...

Airway cells use 'tasting' mechanism to detect and clear harmful substances

...Physiology and Biophysics. Welsh also is a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. "These findings suggest that we have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to guard ourselves from harmful environmental stimuli," Ben-Shahar said. "Our work also suggests that losing cilia in the lungs, due to smoking or dis...

UTMB study identifies women at risk of gaining excessive weight with injectable birth control

...ight gain, but more research is needed." The biological mechanism of DMPA-related weight gain is still unknown, but researchers note that possible mechanisms include glucocorticoid-like activity, how the body breaks down simple carbohydrates such as glucose, and DMPA-associated interference with insulin act...

Knee injuries may start with strain on the brain, not the muscles

...merse athletes to very complex athletic scenarios, thus teaching rapid decision making. It might also be possible to train "hard wired" spinal control mechanisms to combat fatigue fallout. In a related paper, McLean's group again tested the single leg landings of 13 men and 13 women after working the legs t...

Protein that promotes cancer cell growth identified

...ls would provide a growth advantage. However, this is rarely observed in human cancers. By providing a more complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in cancer cell proliferation and migration, these results point to Caspase-8 as a novel therapeutic intervention point for treating multiple ...
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