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Mammals in Biological News

After dinosaurs, mammals rise but their genomes get smaller

BLOOMINGTON, Ind. -- Evidence buried in the chromosomes of animals and plants strongly suggests only one group -- mammals -- have seen their genomes shrink after the dinosaurs' extinction. What's more, that trend continues today, say Indiana University Bloomington scientists in the first issue of ...

CU-Boulder study shows 53 million-year-old high Arctic mammals wintered in darkness

Ancestors of tapirs and ancient cousins of rhinos living above the Arctic Circle 53 million years ago endured six months of darkness each year in a far milder climate than today that featured lush, swampy forests, according to a new study led by the University of Colorado at Boulder. CU-Boulder...

Climate change driving Michigan mammals north

ANN ARBOR, Mich.---Some Michigan mammal species are rapidly expanding their ranges northward, apparently in response to climate change, a new study shows. In the process, these historically southern species are replacing their northern counterparts. The finding, by researchers at the Universit...

Female mammals follow their noses to the right mates

Female birds often choose their mates based on fancy feathers. Female mammals, on the other hand, may be more likely to follow their noses to the right mate. That's one conclusion of Cambridge zoologist Tim Clutton-Brock and Harvard researcher Katherine McAuliffe, whose review of evidence for fema...

Scientists uncover new class of non-protein coding genes in mammals with key functions

A research team at the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center has uncovered a vast new class of previously unrecognized mammalian genes that do not encode proteins, but instead function as long RNA molecules. Their findings, presented in the February 1st advanc...

7 Texas mammals listed as threatened on Global Mammal Assessment

When the Global Mammal Assessment project results are announced this week at the World Conservation Congress in Barcelona, Spain, there will be at least seven Texas species on the globally threatened list. The species of mammals from Texas that are classified as under some level of threat based...

Researchers document world's mammals in crisis

TEMPE, Ariz. From majestic African elephants to tiny and often unappreciated rodents, mammals on Earth are in a state of crisis. One in four mammal species on Earth is being pushed to extinction, according to the Global Mammal Assessment, the most comprehensive assessment of the world's mammals. ...

Effects of anthropogenic sound on marine mammals -- a research strategy

The Marine Board-ESF published its 13th Position Paper, which presents a view from marine mammal specialists on the research needed to assess the effects of anthropogenic sound upon marine mammals. The research strategy presented in Marine Board Position Paper 13 results from the activities and...

Bee species outnumber mammals and birds combined

Scientists have discovered that there are more bee species than previously thought. In the first global accounting of bee species in over a hundred years, John S. Ascher, a research scientist in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology at the American Museum of Natural History, compiled online species...

Arctic marine mammals on thin ice

The loss of sea ice due to climate change could spell disaster for polar bears and other Arctic marine mammals. The April Special Issue of Ecological Applications examines such potential effects, puts them in historical context, and describes possible conservation measures to mitigate them. The ...

Why diving marine mammals resist brain damage from low oxygen

SANTA CRUZ, CA-- No human can survive longer than a few minutes underwater, and even a well-trained Olympic swimmer needs frequent gulps of air. Our brains need a constant supply of oxygen, particularly during exercise. Contrast that with Weddell seals, animals that dive and hunt under the Ant...

Burrowing mammals dig for a living, but how do they do that?

Next time you see a mole digging in tree-root-filled soil in search of supper, take a moment to ponder the mammal's humerus bones. When seen in the lab, they are nothing like the long upper arm bones of any other mammal, says Samantha Hopkins, a paleontologist at the University of Oregon. Hopki...

Climate-caused biodiversity booms and busts in ancient plants and mammals

ANN ARBOR, Mich.---A period of global warming from 53 million to 47 million years ago strongly influenced plants and animals, spurring a biodiversity boom in western North America, researchers from three research museums report in a paper published online this week in the Proceedings of the Natio...

Major international study challenges notions of how genes are controlled in mammals

This release is available in French . Scientists at the Omics Science Center (OSC) of the RIKEN Yokohama Institute in Japan along with researchers from McGill University and other institutions worldwide are challenging current notions of how genes are controlled in mammals. Three years ...

Tailor-made recombinant proteins in mammals

BERKELEY, CA A new way to direct chemical modifications to specific sites on recombinant proteins including the monoclonal antibodies so important in the pharmaceutical industry has been developed by Carolyn Bertozzi and her colleagues at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley Nation...

Scientists find 'redesigned hammer' that forged evolution of pregnancy in mammals

New Haven, Conn. Yale researchers have shown that the origin and evolution of the placenta and uterus in mammals is associated with evolutionary changes in a single regulatory protein, according to a report in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . "Many past studies have shown that...

Researchers to develop ocean sanctuary 'noise budget' to evaluate potential impact on marine mammals

Like sentinels at their posts, an array of buoys equipped with underwater microphones and other sensors will be on duty in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary off the coast of Massachusetts for the next 30 months, recording sounds from whales, fish, ships and other sources around the clo...

Engineers study brain folding in higher mammals

Engineers at Washington University in St. Louis are finding common ground between the shaping of the brain and the heart during embryonic development. Larry A.Taber, Ph.D., the Dennis and Barbara Kessler Professor of Biomedical Engineering, and Phillip Bayly, Ph.D., Hughes Professor of Mechani...

How mammals fuel milk production may have implications for cancer

A new study in the December issue of the journal Cell Metabolism, published by Cell Press, offers insight into the manner in which the mammary glands of mammals meet the incredible metabolic demands of milk production. As the normal pathways of breast development undoubtedly affect breast cancer, t...

Contrary to common wisdom, scientist discovers some mammals can smell objects under water

A Vanderbilt researcher has discovered that some stealthy mammals have been doing something heretofore thought impossible -- using the sense of smell under water. The results of the research by Vanderbilt's Kenneth Catania, assistant professor of biology, were reported Dec. 21 in the science jour...

Elephants, large mammals recover from poaching in Africa's oldest national park

A recent wildlife census conducted in Virunga National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) revealed that several species of large mammal are now recovering from a decade of civil war and rampant poaching, according to the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and the Institut Congolais pou...

Insects and mammals share common fat-building pathway, study suggests

When it comes to gaining fat, insects and mammals may have something in common, researchers report in the Jan. 11, 2006, Cell Metabolism. The study finds that the so-called hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway--an ancient suite of genes involved in determining the fates of many cell types--might also pl...

Avian influenza virus in mammals spreads beyond the site of infection to other organ systems

Researchers at Erasmus Medical Center have demonstrated systemic spread of avian influenza virus in cats infected by respiratory, digestive, and cat-to-cat contact. The paper by Rimmelzwaan et al., "Influenza A virus (H5N1) infection in cats causes systemic disease with potential novel routes of v...

Marine mammals are on the frontline of failing ocean health

Leading scientists, physicians, and veterinarians are uncovering new links between land-based pollution and diseases in marine mammals, with implications for human health. "Marine mammals are providing early clues of our unseen impact on the sea," says Paul Sandifer, Chief Scientist for the new O...

Oxygen increase caused mammals to triumph, researchers say

The first, high resolution continuous record of oxygen concentration in the earth's atmosphere shows that a sharp rise in oxygen about 50 million years ago gave mammals the evolutionary boost they needed to dominate the planet, according to Paul Falkowski, Rutgers professor of marine science and le...

Rodent size linked to human population and climate change

...eans comprehensive, it was the first attempt of its kind to examine data on mammals from many global locations to find links between morphological change and v...han many people have thought, especially for mammals," said Pergams. "Those mammals that can adapt quickly have a much higher chance to survive big environment...

Naming evolution's winners and losers

... mammals and many species of birds and fish are among evolu... and colleagues. "Our results indicate that mammals are special," said Michael Alfaro, a UCLA assistan...lutionary success of these groups, such as hair on mammals or mammals' well-coordinated chewing ability or fe...

Bizarre walking bat has ancient heritage

...slands. "Rather, it would seem that walking is rare in bats because it has advantages for them only in special circumstances. Competition with other mammals and pressure from terrestrial predators does not deter modern vampire bats from walking. Likewise, the rich rainforest environment in which the ancest...

Munich researchers discover new target for tailored antibiotics

...to the class of terpenes and steroids from the small isoprene building blocks dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP). mammals and a large number of other organisms generate these essential metabolites via the so-called mevalonate pathway. But most human pathogens, including ...

Key to evolutionary fitness: Cut the calories

... Charles Darwin and his contemporaries postulated that food consumption in birds and mammals was limited by resource levels, that is, animals would eat as much as they could while food was plentiful and produce as many offspring as this would ...

Scientists find a biological 'fountain of youth' in new world bat caves

...rnal ( http://www.fasebj.org ), shows that proper protein folding over time in long-lived bats explains why they live significantly longer than other mammals of comparable size, such as mice. "Ultimately we are trying to discover what underlying mechanisms allow for some animal species to live a very lon...

Female human embryos adjust the balance of X chromosomes before implantation

... indicating that this mechanism of compensating for gene dosages has remained basically unchanged throughout evolution and is probably the same in all mammals that have their young attached to a placenta in the womb from mice to humans. The researchers looked at human embryos that had been donated for sc...

Mice run faster on high-grade oil

...ve an equivalent feat in mice fed on a diet high in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are important dietary components which mammals cannot synthesize de novo. The research, to be presented on 29th June 2009 at the Society for Experimental Biology Annual Meeting, has shown that mice...

Natural-born divers and the molecular traces of evolution

...rm our body. When the ancestors of present marine mammals initiated their return to the oceans, their physio...tive charge of this protein is increased in marine mammals compared with terrestrial relatives, and they have...e molecular sequence of myoglobin in small aquatic mammals such as beavers, muskrats and water shrews, which ...

NYC science symposium marks Gruber Prize program 10th anniversary

...iences at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, whose research has provided key insights into the mechanisms that underlie the sense of smell in mammals and earned her the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, will speak on "Deconstructing Smell." Dr. Fred Gage, professor in the Laboratory of Gene...

Tumor suppressor gene in flies may provide insights for human brain tumors

... disorders, and senior author of a paper published online in the journal Development . "Given that mechanisms for stem cell division in flies and mammals are likely to be similar, our study on fly PP2A may provide useful insights for certain types of human brain tumors and possibly in a wide variety of ...

Stress puts double whammy on reproductive system, fertility

...e played by GnIH in birds, teamed up with Kaufer and Kirby to explore whether stress might affect GnIH levels in the brain. The homologous hormones in mammals have been dubbed RFamide-related peptides, or RFRPs. Kirby showed that acutely stressed rats showed increased RFRP levels for several hours, but th...

Manatees can probably hear which directions boats approach from

... The world is a perilous place for the endangered manatee. While the mammals are at risk from natural threats, human activity also poses a great danger ...nd South Florida and the New College of Florida decided to test whether the mammals can pinpoint sound sources. They publish their results on 12 June 2009 in t...

Mammalogists to convene in Alaska for annual meeting

...ia and workshops focusing on scientific research on more than 40 species of mammals from little brown bats to big brown bears. Presentations will cover many as...esentation on population dynamics, politics and perils of large terrestrial mammals in North America will be presented by R. Terry Bowyer, UAF professor emerit...

Wildlife Conservation Society supports world's first study of egg-laying mammal

...ral years of remotely tracking the porcupine-sized mammals and recording their dens and other signs. The s...s a member of the monotremes, a primitive order of mammals that forced zoologists to change their very defini...chidnas are members of the monotremes, an order of mammals that lay leathery eggs, as opposed to placental an...
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