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Machinery in Biological News

Xie Lab uncovers molecular machinery related to stem cell fate

The Stowers Institute's Xie Lab has revealed how the BAM protein affects germline stem cell differentiation and how it is involved in regulating the quality of stem cells through intercellular competition. The work was published today by PNAS Early Edition. Maintaining the proper balance betw...

Cells use import machinery to export their goods as well

In the bustling economy of the cell, little bubbles called vesicles serve as container ships, ferrying cargo to and from the port - the cell membrane. Some of these vesicles, called post-Golgi vesicles, export cargo made by the cell's protein factory. Scientists have long believed that other, sim...

Rot's unique wood degrading machinery to be harnessed for better biofuels production

WALNUT CREEK, Calif.An international team led by scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) have translated the genetic code that explains the complex biochemical machinery...

Yale scientists visualize the machinery of mRNA splicing

New Haven, Conn. Recent research at Yale provided a glimpse of the ancient mechanism that helped diversify our genomes; it illuminated a relationship between gene processing in humans and the most primitive organisms by creating the first crystal structure of a crucial self-splicing region of RNA...

Shilatifard Lab sheds light on molecular machinery required for translation of histone crosstalk

The Stowers Institutes Shilatifard Lab has published findings that shed light on the molecular machinery required for the translation of histone crosstalk, or communication between histones. Published in todays issue of Cell, Histone Crosstalk between H2B Monoubiquitination and H3 Methylation...

Deep into the machinery of adult fragile X

Researchers have reported new insight into the pathology underlying a recently identified neurological disorder that strikes middle-aged adults that is caused by alterations in the same gene that causes fragile X syndrome. Fragile X tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) overwhelmingly affects males, usua...

CSHL scientists discover new way in which ubiquitin modifies transcriptional machinery

Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. During gene transcription the process inside the nucleus of cells by which DNA, the genetic material, is copied into RNA molecules a large, ever-changing multiprotein complex is enlisted to assist the DNA-copying enzyme in its challenging job. Like an exquisitely ch...

A study reveals how cells communicate to activate the cell division machinery

This release is available in Spanish . A study performed by researchers at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona) on the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, unveils how distinct signaling pathways operate between neighboring cells in order to activate the cell proliferatio...

Green alga genome project catalogs carbon capture machinery

WALNUT CREEK, -The genome analysis of a tiny green alga has uncovered hundreds of genes that are uniquely associated with carbon dioxide capture and generation of biomass. Among the 15,000-plus genes revealed in the study are those that encode the structure and function of the specialized organell...

Revealing the machinery underlying the 'plastic' juvenile brain

Among the central mysteries of neurobiology is what properties of the young brain enable it to so adeptly wire itself to adapt to experience—a quality known as plasticity. The extraordinary plasticity of the young brain occurs only during a narrow window of time known as the critical period. For ex...

Biologists probe the machinery of cellular protein factories

Proteins of all sizes and shapes do most of the work in living cells, and the DNA sequences in genes spell out the instructions for making those proteins. The crucial job of reading the genetic instructions and synthesizing the specified proteins is carried out by ribosomes, tiny protein factories ...

Dissecting the machinery of nicotine's reward

Understanding what makes people crave the high of nicotine is a key to developing treatment for this highly addictive drug. And that understanding involves tracing the neural machinery by which nicotine switches on the brain's reward machinery. In an article in the June 15, 2006, Neuron, Jean-Pie...

New insight into machinery of immune cells' 'tentacles'

Researchers have identified new molecular components of the machinery that regulates formation of the tentacle-like filaments by which immune system T cells grasp other cells. This embrace by such filaments is critical for the T cell to establish communication with cells called "antigen presenting ...

Gambling monkeys give insight into neural machinery of risk

Duke University Medical Center neurobiologists have pinpointed circuitry in the brains of monkeys that assesses the level of risk in a given action. Their findings -- gained from experiments in which they gave the monkeys a chance to gamble to receive juice rewards -- could give insights into why h...

Scientists take aim at virulent bacteria by decoding machinery of key control enzyme

By deciphering the ingenious mechanism used by a particular enzyme to modify bacterial chromosome chemistry, scientists have come a step closer to designing a new kind of drug that could stop virulent bacterial infections in their tracks. Their research will be published in the May 6 issue of the j...

UC San Diego engineer provides insights to decades-old DNA squabble

...t cancer and its link to abnormal gene regulation, we have to ask the question why are these genes misfiring? In the end, it boils down to the protein machinery that makes up and regulates chromatin," he explained. "You could have mutations in the oncogenic or tumor suppressor genes that lead to cancer or you ...

Fox Chase researchers uncover one force behind the MYC oncogene in many cancers

...ould bind to the MYC promoter, which is a section of DNA where certain proteins known as transcription factors attach in order to recruit the cellular machinery used to transcribe genes into messenger RNA and then proteins. Studies in both cells and a mouse model for cancer showed that they could promote the e...

Stress signals link pre-existing sickness with susceptibility to bacterial infection

... Mitochondrial diseases disrupt the power generating machinery within cells and increase a person's susceptibility to bacterial infection, particularly in the lungs or respiratory tract. A new study published in ...

Study by NTU professors provides important insight into apoptosis or programmed cell death

...nto and out of the nucleus. Hence, when the concentration of RanGTP is reduced in the nucleus, the RanGTP gradient collapses and the nuclear transport machinery subsequently shuts down. Too little or too much apoptosis plays a role in a great many diseases. When programmed cell death does not work right, ce...

Biological warfare in bacteria offers hope for new antibiotics

...iversity of York's Department of Biology, will develop earlier research that suggests colicins use decoys to mimic key parts of the cells' own protein machinery to evade their defences. Professor Kleanthous said: "Colicins are the weapon used in the biological warfare that takes place between competing bact...

Targeting helpers of heat shock proteins could help treat cancer, cardiovascular disease

...driving these hormone-driven cancers," Dr. Chadli says. "We think the Hsp90 machinery is an important piece of cancer development. Whatever we can do to modulate...xtremely busy proteins, he says. "The terminology we use is that the Hsp90 machinery is hijacked by cancer," says Dr. Chadli. Proteins that enable cancer basics...

University of Houston diesel testing center teams with state transportation agency to cut emissions

...ore thorough testing. Located in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, Nett Technologies specializes in emission-control products for engines, vehicles and machinery used in the mining, material handling and construction industries. The company's wide range of products includes catalytic converters for diesel, natu...

Trans fats hinder multiple steps in blood flow regulation pathways

...ain trans fatty acids that interfere with the regulation of blood flow. A new report reveals a new way in which these "trans fats" gum up the cellular machinery that keeps blood moving through arteries and veins. In the August 2009 issue of the international journal Atherosclerosis , University of Illinois...

Protein regulates movement of mitochondria in brain cells

...which was reported today in the Journal of Cell Biology , may shed new light on how the brain recovers from stroke. "Understanding the molecular machinery that helps distribute mitochondria to different parts of the cell has only recently begun to be understood," said University of Rochester Medical Cent...

Protein that triggers plant cell division revealed by researchers

..."Now that we can actually see a protein moved around to a very specific place in the cell, we've opened up the possibility of finding all the internal machinery that plants cells use to get it there." ...

Small molecules mimic natural gene regulators

...o be regulated, and an activation domain that attaches itself to the cell's machinery through a key protein-to-protein interaction and spurs the gene into action...o know whether their ATFs attached to the same sites in the transcriptional machinery that natural activators did. In the current work, the team showed that t...

Scientists explain how 'death receptors' designed to kill our cells may make them stronger

...an 'death receptors,'" said Gerald Weissmann, M.D., Editor-in-Chief of The FASEB Journal . "Fortunately for us, when scientists look at the intricate machinery of how cells die, they dig up clues to longer, healthier lives." ...

NASA satellite detects red glow to map global ocean plant health

...cence reveals insights about the physiology of marine plants and the efficiency of photosynthesis, as different parts of the plant's energy-harnessing machinery are activated based on the amount of light and nutrients available. For instance, the amount of fluorescence increases when phytoplankton are under st...

Boston University biomedical engineers teach bacteria to count

...ackwards, it can no longer be transcribed but an extra snippet of DNA the researchers attached to its tail acts as a bookmark, showing protein-making machinery where to resume work. Each successive flip-over counts another event, and the fluorescing protein is activated after the third one. In both methods...

Study may aid efforts to prevent uncontrolled cell division in cancer

...dies of the contractile ring could ultimately lead to improved therapies for cancer," said first author Ana Carvalho, PhD. "Understanding the cellular machinery required for cell division may teach us how to prevent the uncontrolled cell division that occurs in cancer." ...

Yeast missing sex genes undergo unexpected sexual reproduction

...oute to genetic diversity," Heitman said. "Or maybe these differing types of progeny are the unfortunate consequence of undergoing meiosis without the machinery that species normally have when they reproduce sexually." Humans, too, have their share of oddly paired chromosomes. "Experts estimate that about ...

Research team finds important role for junk DNA

...from parent to offspring and these maternal RNAs provide templates for the rearrangement process," Landweber said. "Now we've been studying the actual machinery involved in the process of cutting and splicing tremendous amounts of DNA. Transposons are very good at that." The term "junk DNA" was originally ...

Molecules that orchestrate the processes of life

...s racing down nerve fibers, proteins building new strands of DNA... The machinery of Life is a journey into the sub-microscopic world of molecular machines. ...sons and drugs each have their effects on the molecules in our bodies. The machinery of Life is a pictorial overview of the molecules that orchestrate the proce...

Flow of potassium into cells implicated in schizophrenia

... A study on schizophrenia has implicated machinery that maintains the flow of potassium in cells and revealed a potential molecular target for new treatments. Expression of a previously unknown form of...

Regulation of cell proliferation by the OGF-OGFr axis is dependent on nuclear localization signals

...cal implications of the study speak to whether changes in nucleocytoplasmic machinery related to the OGF-OGFr axis, part of the body's own machinery governing physiological processes, may be involved with understanding the e...

Yale researchers uncover secrets of salmonella's stealth attack

...illion people a year. "In evolutionary terms, this hijacking of cellular machinery to diversify the function of a bacterial protein is mind boggling,'' said J...dition of this tag makes the bacterial protein recognizable to the cellular machinery that normally moves proteins from the plasma membranes to internal vesicles...

New book, 'Untangling the Double Helix,' explores enzymes responsible for maintaining genome integrity

...poisomerases, DNA would become a knotted, coiled, dysfunctional mess inside of a cell as it gets twisted, rolled, unzipped, and pulled by the cellular machinery that reads and copies its sequence. Topoisomerases, which are responsible for relieving this tension and maintaining the integrity of the genome, wer...

CSHL-led team identifies key decision-point at which cells with broken DNA repair themselves or die

... Absent, or EYA, as performing a critical role in setting the damage-repair machinery in motion. Engaged within the larger context of a complex signaling cascad...ct. It remains unclear if or how the role of Eyes Absent in the DNA repair machinery -- in other words, its role as a tyrosine phosphatase, or remover of phosph...

CSHL researchers explain process by which cells 'hide' potentially dangerous DNA segments

... host of players: the enzyme that copies DNA into RNA, which is diced into short segments called short interfering RNAs, or siRNAs; a part of the RNAi machinery known as the RITS complex; and various enzymes that are able to alter the configuration of chromatin. A debate over recruitment "In trying to ...

Potential new HIV drug may help patients not responding to treatment

...hich HIV and SIV use to hold the immune system back. In healthy people, IDO prevents the immune system from attacking the body. HIV and SIV hijack the machinery that makes IDO and use it to stop the immune system from attacking them. In the new study, the researchers could find no evidence that D-1mT reacti...
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