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Intestinal in Biological News

When intestinal bacteria go surfing

The bacterium Escherichia coli is part of the healthy human intestinal flora. However, E. coli also has pathogenic relatives that trigger diarrhea illnesses: enterohemorrhagic E.coli bacteria. During the course of an infection they infest the intestinal mucosa, causing injury in the process,...

Study finds healthy intestinal bacteria within chicken eggs

Athens, Ga. The conventional wisdom among scientists has long been that birds acquire the intestinal bacteria that are necessary for good health from their environment, but a new University of Georgia study finds that chickens are actually born with those bacteria. Lead author Adriana Pedroso ...

Like a snail through the intestinal canal

The medical device currently used for intestinal research, the colonsope, causes patients great discomfort. At TU Delft, an alternative method has been developed, inspired by the way in which snails move. On September 18, researcher Dimitra Dodou received her PhD degree from TU Delft based on this ...

Bacterial protein shows promise in treating intestinal parasites

Scientists at the University of California, San Diego and Yale University have discovered that a natural protein produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, a bacterium sprayed on crops by organic farmers to reduce insect damage, is highly effective at treating hookworm infections in laboratory animals. ...

Transgenic goat's milk offers hope for tackling children's intestinal disease

It's hard to improve on milk, but animal scientists at the University of California, Davis, have found that milk produced by transgenic goats, which carry the gene for an antibacterial enzyme found in human breast milk, altered the intestinal bacteria in young goats and pigs that were fed the milk....

Innocuous intestinal bacteria may be reservoir for resistance

"Harmless" bacteria in the digestive tracts of dairy cows, may not be so harmless after all. They may be a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes that can be transferred to more harmful, disease-causing bacteria, according to research presented today at the 106th General Meeting of the American...

Gut protein found to protect against infection and intestinal breakdown

A protein that binds to bile in the small intestine may hold the key to preventing infection and intestinal breakdown in people with conditions such as obstructive jaundice or irritable bowel syndrome, researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have discovered. "What we've identified is one o...

Stanford gut check shows diversity of intestinal ecosystem

The universe of microbes that lives in your stomach may be nearly as unique as your fingerprint, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine who have embarked on the early stages of exploring the intestinal ecosystem. Using molecular techniques that detect all known typ...

NSAID drug protects against intestinal tumors in mice, despite poor diet and gene losses

In mouse models of intestinal cancer, use of an anti-inflammatory drug eliminated all of the cancer-causing risks produced by a high-fat Western-style diet - even when several genetic brakes to cancer formation were missing in the animals, say researchers from the Albert Einstein Cancer Center. T...

Highly adaptable genome in gut bacterium key to intestinal health

A bacterium that lives in the human gut adaptively shifts more than a quarter of its genes into high gear when its host's diet changes from sugar to complex carbohydrates. This adaptive mechanism not only allows the bacterial species to survive rapidly changing nutrient conditions but also helps...

C. difficile spores spread superbug

... "is a better understanding of the interactions between C. difficile , the intestinal microbiota and the immune system of the host - in this case the mouse - pri...lopment of new probiotic approaches, which could restore the balance of the intestinal microbiota and promote health, are clear." "This research has far reachi...

The tiny difference in the genes of bacteria

... strains are pathogenic to humans. Only those strains cause severe diarrhoea known as Cholera that produce a certain bacterial toxin which attacks the intestinal wall. A less known, though also dangerous member of the genus Vibrio, is Vibrio parahaemolyticus. It is a highly contagious pathogenic germ with only ...

The tiny difference in the genes of bacteria

... strains are pathogenic to humans. Only those strains cause severe diarrhoea known as Cholera that produce a certain bacterial toxin which attacks the intestinal wall. A less known, though also dangerous member of the genus Vibrio, is Vibrio parahaemolyticus. It is a highly contagious pathogenic germ with only ...

NIH expands Human Microbiome Project; funds sequencing centers and disease projects

...e inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, the intestinal microbiome, and bacterial proteins will be explore...n's Disease $980,000 This study will analyze the intestinal microbiome and disease subjects' genetic factors t... will examine the potential connection between the intestinal microbiome and the development of necrotizing ente...

Antibiotics take toll on beneficial microbes in gut

... ANN ARBOR, Mich. It's common knowledge that a protective navy of bacteria normally floats in our intestinal tracts. Antibiotics at least temporarily disturb the normal balance. But it's unclear which antibiotics are the most disruptive, and if the full array...

American Chemical Society weekly presspac -- June 10, 2009

... bacteria containing a test protein could successfully penetrate a group of intestinal cells grown in the lab and deliver the protein inside the cells while leavi... Listeria monocytogenes Delivers Protein and/or DNA to Fully Differentiated intestinal Epithelial Monolayers" DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ARTICLE: http://pubs.acs.org/...

American Society for Microbiology honors Deborah T. Hung

...reening to dissect essential steps in pathogenesis. She published her findingsa new small molecule inhibitor of Vibrio cholerae virulence and intestinal colonization, virstatin, which directly inhibited dimerization of the virulence transcriptional activator ToxTin 2005 in Science. Currentl...

Enzyme involved in inflammatory bowel disease discovered at Penn State College of Medicine

...rchers used a mouse model of IBD, replicating inflammation in the intestine like that in human ulcerative colitis. Mice lacking meprin had more severe intestinal damage after drinking a solution to induce inflammation, than did the wild-type mice that have meprin. These results indicate that meprin reduces the ...

Five outstanding young gastroenterologists receive AGA Foundation 2009 Research Scholars Award

...stinal hormones and gastric emptying in obesity Michele Battle, PhD, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee: Determining the role that GATAs play in intestinal development and function Rohit Loomba, MD, MHSc, University of California, San Diego (Designated RSA in Geriatric Gastroenterology funded by Sucampo ...

Caffeic acid inhibits colitis in a mouse model -- is a drug-metabolizing gene crucial?

... reversal of inflammatory damage was a hallmark of the efficacy of caffeic acid, a component found widely in plant foods in the human diet, to inhibit intestinal tissue damage in a mouse model commonly used to simulate colitis. Dr. Steven R. Goodman, Editor-in-Chief of Experimental Biology and Medicine said "...

The evolution of gene regulation

...n mechanisms adapted the genetic activity of cells to internal and external conditions even in microorganisms. It is known, for example, that the intestinal bacterium Escherichia coli in the digestive tract of young mammals can break down lactose, the sugar abundant in mother's milk. To do this, the bacter...

Immune genes adapt to parasites

...udy, conducted by a team of researchers in Italy, also suggests that you might blame parasites for sculpting some of those genes into risk factors for intestinal disorders. Parasite-driven selection leaves a footprint on our DNA in the form of mutations known as "single nucleotide polymorphisms" (SNPs). Mak...

Rabbits on the back foot -- but naturally they're fighting back

... called Rabbit Calicivirus Australia1," she said. "Its ancestors probably came to Australia with the first rabbits 150 years ago. We found it in the intestinal tissues and we believe it has a faecal-oral mode of transmission." The CEO of the Invasive Animals CRC, Professor Tony Peacock, said rabbits are fle...

Tufted bacteria cause infection in premature babies

...neonatal section. Dr Marchini stresses that humans have evolved effective forms of co-existence with certain microbes; for example, the most common intestinal bacteria produces Vitamin K, which we need every day and which is important for the blood's coagulative properties. Bacteria are also necessary for th...

Details of bacterial 'injection' system revealed

...etion system is a complex protein structure that traverses the bacterial cell membrane and acts as a biological syringe to inject deadly proteins into intestinal cells. These proteins rupture the cell's innards, leading to bloody diarrhea and sometimes death. Similar secretion systems exist in a range of other ...

Mass Biologic Labs/UMass Med School and Medarex license C. difficile monoclonal antibody to Merck

...inistration of additional antibiotics to kill the C. difficile bacteria, but because of the persistence of spores, as well as the difficulty for the intestinal flora to re-normalize in the setting of antibiotics, relapse/recurrence of CDI is common, and is estimated to occur in 20 percent of cases, with post-...

Yale researchers uncover secrets of salmonella's stealth attack

...al Pathogenesis and Cell Biology and chair of microbial pathogenesis at Yale. Salmonella causes disease when it takes control of cells lining the intestinal track using its own specialized "nano-syringe" called a type III secretion system. Using this structure, Salmonella injects bacterial proteins that ...

Research could lead to new non-antibiotic drugs to counter hospital infections

... cause of lung infections, it is also found in the intestinal tract of 20 percent of all Americans and 50 percen...f the hundreds of bacteria that colonize the human intestinal tract, usually causing no apparent harm. It might ...othesized that phosphate depletion in the stressed intestinal tract signals P. aeruginosa to become lethal. ...

Tips from the American Journal of Pathology

...lanta suggests that bacterial lymphotoxin disrupts intestinal epithelial barrier function. They report these fi...bacter rodentium ( C. rodentium ), can breach the intestinal epithelial barrier, entering the blood and causing... attractive alternative to antibiotics in treating intestinal injury and preventing extraintestinal manifestatio...

Monash scientists debug superbug

...le to see the whole picture," Dr Lyras said. Statistics show that in the US, more people die from Clostridium difficile infections than all other intestinal infections combined, with most deaths involving patients aged 65 years or over. The disease is believed to have contributed to more than 8,000 deaths ...

Low levels of vitamin B12 may increase risk for neural tube defects

...els. Women who consume little or no meat or animal based foods are the most likely group of women to have low B12 levels, along with women who have intestinal disorders that prevent them from absorbing sufficient amounts of B12. Neural tube defects are a class of birth defects affecting the brain and spin...

A worm-and-mouse tale: B cells deserve more respect

... By studying how mice fight off infection by intestinal worms a condition that affects more than 1 billion people worldwide scien...mouse actually fights off infection by a parasite. They chose to study the intestinal parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus , a bright red worm about one-third of ...

Research project to boost European fish farming

...ing around SEK 64 million, around ten million of which will be used at the University of Gothenburg for research on growth and development physiology, intestinal physiology, the adaptation of fish to different environments and hormonal regulation of different life processes. "In this project we will be prima...

Our microbes, ourselves

... indigestible plant polysaccharides and carbohydrates. The effect is to boost production of SCFAs, particularly acetate, which will be taken up by the intestinal epithelium and converted to fat. The result over time may be increasing weight, eventually leading to obesity. While weight regulation involves a ...

Voracious sponges save reef

...nisms and to date was only known to occur in unicellular organisms. The production and breakdown process of the sponge cells mirrors that in the human intestinal tract. Eating and being eaten Coal reef maintains itself in a remarkable manner. The algae and corals on the reef produce dissolved organic mat...

For fats, longer may not be better

.... Long-chain fats, it turns out, promote increased intestinal absorption of pro-inflammatory bacterial molecules..., long-chain fats need to be first packaged by the intestinal cells into particles known as chylomicrons (large ...ut to be correct; when they treated cultured human intestinal cells with oleic acid they observed significant se...

'Scrawny' gene keeps stem cells healthy

...lized cell to differentiate into a specific type of cell, such as a skin or intestinal cell. The researchers observed the effects of scrawny on every major ty...scrawny prematurely lost their stem cells in reproductive tissue, skin, and intestinal tissue. Stem cells function as a repair system for the body. They maint...

New genetic markers for ulcerative colitis identified, researchers report in Nature Genetics

...tis and genetic markers on chromosome 7q31 within or near the laminin, beta 1 (LAMB1) gene, which is a member of a gene family known to play a role in intestinal health and disease, and confirmed previously identified associations between ulcerative colitis and genetic variants in the interleukin 23 receptor (I...

Fewer deaths with preventive antibiotic use

... paste four times daily, received antibiotics through a gastric tube in the intestinal tract and by intravenous drip. The third group was the control group and re...ber of deaths by 3.5 percent (oral antibiotic paste, and antibiotics in the intestinal tract and by intravenous drip) and 2.9 percent (oral antibiotic paste). The...

Tips from the American Journal of Pathology

... microorganisms is a key event in these results reveals important 'tumor-suppressive' functions for Smad3 in T effector cells, T regulatory cells, and intestinal epithelial cells, all of which may normally limit the development of colon cancer in response to bacterial inflammation," explains Dr. Iritani's group...
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