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Plants grow bigger and more vigorously through changes in their internal clocks

AUSTIN, TexasHybrid plants, like corn, grow bigger and better than their parents because many of their genes for photosynthesis and starch metabolism are more active during the day, report researchers from The University of Texas at Austin in a new study published in the journal Nature . Their...

Surprising origin of cell's internal highways

Scientists have long thought that microtubules, part of the microscopic scaffolding that the cell uses to move things around in order to hold its shape and divide, originated from a tiny structure near the nucleus, called the centrosome. Now, researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center ...

Researchers create artificial enzyme that mimics the body's internal engine

The protein cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is the ultimate enzyme responsible for all aerobic life on Earth, from bacteria to people. It is also a crucial component of the cellular machinery that generates energy in our body. With such impressive credentials, you might expect that scientists would have...

UCSD researchers discover internal compass of immune cell

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine have discovered how neutrophils ?specialized white blood cells that play key roles in inflammation and in the body's immune defense against bacteria ?navigate to sites of infection and inflammation. These findings cou...

New GI technologies improve internal organ visualization

As visualization technologies like ultrasound continue to improve in quality and safety, researchers are making the most of the opportunity to access new areas of internal organs that have not previously been examined without open surgery. In a group of studies presented today during Digestive Dis...

What Makes The Brain Tick, Tick, Tick: Researchers Gaining New Insights Into Brain's Internal Clock

The brain is a "time machine," assert Duke neuroscientists Catalin Buhusi and Warren Meck. And understanding how the brain tracks time is essential to understanding all its functions. The brain's internal clocks coordinate a vast array of activities from communicating, to orchestrating movement, to...

Examination of internal 'wiring' of yeast, worm, and fly reveals conserved circuits

First-of-its-kind analysis published in the Feb. 8 PNAS supports the concept of a basic wiring diagram for all eukaryotes. Researchers in California, Israel, and Germany have compared three distantly related species ?baker's yeast, a worm, and the fruit fly ?and reported that protein "wiring" co...

AGU journal highlights -- Aug. 6, 2009

.... To examine how waves below the surface, known as internal waves, are modified by closely spaced submerged ri...s. The model shows that, in the case of two sills, internal waves become trapped between the two sills, leadin...raphy. Title: Influence of multiple sills upon internal wave generation and the implications for mixing ...

UC San Diego engineer provides insights to decades-old DNA squabble

...ists have used innovative approaches to deduce the internal structure of chromatin, a key player in DNA regula...of Massachusetts, and New York University. The internal structure of chromatin is not knowna mystery that ...n. We now know how chromatin compacts and what its internal structure looks like. "But we are far from solving...

Scientists uncork a potential secret of red wine's health benefits

...rs involved in the work. "Moreover, many survivors of sepsis develop a very low quality of life due to the damage that inflammation causes to several internal organs. The ultimate goal of our study was to identify a potential novel therapy to help in the treatment of strong acute inflammatory diseases." ...

Maternal, paternal genes' tug-of-war may last well into childhood

... overgrowth, while genes of maternal origin tend to have the opposite effect. This new work suggests maternal and paternal genes continue to engage in internal genetic conflict past childbirth. "This analysis suggests that human life history, and especially humans' unusual extended childhood, may reflect a...

'Corrective genes' closer thanks to enzyme modification

...n the function, structure and engineering of proteins. "This discovery will lead to promising new avenues." "We were intrigued to find the enzyme's internal flexibility was impacted by our modifications and that this fact played such a crucial role for resistance," says Albert Berghuis, a professor at the ...

Stress signals link pre-existing sickness with susceptibility to bacterial infection

...kly responds by producing a host of metabolism-associated proteins. Another similarity between humans and Dictyostelium is that both use AMPK as an internal sensor to coordinate energy synthesis with energy needs. However, unlike humans, researchers can infect Dictyostelium with germs like Legionella ...

Airway cells use 'tasting' mechanism to detect and clear harmful substances

...rked in the lab of senior study author Michael Welsh, M.D., UI professor of internal medicine and molecular physiology and biophysics, who holds the Roy J. Carver Chair of internal Medicine and Physiology and Biophysics. Welsh also is a Howard Hughes Medic...

Hush little baby... Linking genes, brain and behavior in children

...the "results suggest that it is possible that the DRD4 long allele plays different roles (for better and for worse) in child temperament" depending on internal conditions (the environment inside their bodies) and conclude that the pattern of brain activity (that is, greater activation in left or right frontal...

Ozone, nitrogen change the way rising CO2 affects Earth's water

...creasing CO2 is changing how plant "pores," or stomata, discharge water. With elevated CO2 levels, leaf pores contract and sometimes close to conserve internal water reserves. This "stomatal conductance" response increases water use efficiency and reduces the rate of transpiration. Plants that release les...

The sound of light: Innovative technology shatters the barriers of modern light microscopy

...ng acoustic patterns. An attached computer uses these formulas to evaluate and interpret the specific distortions caused by scales, muscles, bones and internal organs to generate a three-dimensional image. The result of this "multi-spectral opto-acoustic tomography", or MSOT, is an image with a striking sp...

Cells use import machinery to export their goods as well

...linders. There's an advantage in biology of sometimes just looking without a hypothesis." The researchers used a special form of microscopy (total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy) capable of focusing solely on the narrow plane in which the vesicle and membrane merge. "It's a little like the gu...

Study finds DNA barcoding requires caution without closer examination

...ts, none of them serves as a universal barcode marker. Regions that have been proposed for plants include a section of the nuclear ribosomal DNA: the internal non-transcribed spacer region (ITS); and various plastid regions to include the trnH-psbA intergenic spacer and the plastid genes rpoC1, rpoB, and mat...

How mitochondria get their membranes bent

...ssion of Fcj1 the number of cristae junctions goes up. Without the protein, however, crista junctions are lacking and the inner cristae membrane forms internal parallel stacks of vesicles. On the other hand, the researchers found that regular assemblies (supercomplexes) of the F1FO-ATPase, a protein comple...

NYU Langone Medical Center awarded NIH grants totaling $1,560,000

...volunteers and volunteers with specific diseases over the next year. As part of that funding, Martin J. Blaser, MD, the Frederick H. King Professor of internal Medicine, chair of the Department of Medicine, and professor of microbiology, will receive support for his study titled "Evaluation of the Cutaneous M...

Salt block unexpectedly stretches in Sandia experiments

...ock, said Houston, is that "surface molecules don't have buddies." That is, because there's no atomic lattice above them, they're more mobile than the internal body of salt molecules forming the salt block. Salt showing signs of surface mobility at room temperatures was "totally surprising," said Houston, ...

Ability to literally imagine oneself in another's shoes may be tied to empathy

...cientific journal PLoS ONE . The full article is available at: http://tinyurl.com/lw6qmv . Empathy involves, in part, the ability to simulate the internal states of others. The authors hypothesized that our ability to manipulate, rotate and simulate mental representations of the physical world, including...

Fate in fly sensory organ precursor cells could explain human immune disorder

... become the shaft and socket cells on the exterior of the fly's external sensory organ. The pIIb, through two divisions, become the neuron and sheath internal cells of the external sensory organ. These four types of cells become the sensory cluster. When a cluster of neurons is observed, cell fate determi...

Antibiotics take toll on beneficial microbes in gut

...revitalize the gut microbial community, "we may be doing long-term damage to our close friends," says Young, assistant professor in the departments of internal medicine and microbiology and immunology at the U-M Medical School. Study details Young and his colleagues used a culture-independent technique,...

Size did matter

...ntologist at the ESRF. This method is currently the most powerful and sensitive way to investigate in three dimensions and at a microscopic scale, the internal anatomy of exceptional fossils without damaging them. "Holotomography is a non-destructive imaging technique like computer tomography (CT), but we use...

Promising device snags young inventors coveted spot at IShow

...p of patients, and is simple for people to use," said Dr. Cliff Dacso, director of the Abramson Center, the John S. Dunn Sr. Research Chair in General internal Medicine at The Methodist Hospital, and professor at UH's College of Technology. "Such elegance and purpose of design are rare and tend to be highly s...

Protein that triggers plant cell division revealed by researchers

... adding, "Now that we can actually see a protein moved around to a very specific place in the cell, we've opened up the possibility of finding all the internal machinery that plants cells use to get it there." ...

Beetle shell inspires brilliant white paper

...egs showed them to be covered in long flat scales, which have highly random internal 3D structures. These irregular internal forms are the key to its uniquely effective light scattering. By balancing ...

Enigmatic sea urchin structure catalogued

...he axial complex of sea urchins ( Echinoidea ), an internal structure with unknown function, has shown that wi...structural evolutionary interdependence of various internal organs. The research, published in BioMed Central'...age can yield novel insights into the evolution of internal organ systems. Alexander Ziegler, from Charit-U...

Fatty foods -- not empty stomach -- fire up hunger hormone

...be targeted in future treatments for metabolic diseases. The laboratory study, led by Matthias Tschp, MD, UC associate professor of psychiatry and internal medicine, is published online ahead of print Friday, June 5, 2009, in the journal Nature Medicine . Ghrelin is a hormone that was believed to ac...

Design input accelerates new technologies' route to market

...fer the potential to reduce a reliance on air conditioning by utilising unique window coatings that change colour in reaction to external temperature. internal room temperatures can then be controlled without significant reduction in visible light transmission. The technology could be used in new builds or re...

MicroRNAs grease the cell's circadian clockwork

... Most of our cells possess an internal clock, a group of genes displaying a cyclic expression pattern that reaches...ings have adapted to the alternation between night and day by developing an internal clock, located in the brain. It allows synchronising gene expression and ph...

Studies shed light on collapse of coral reefs

...h less has been known about their fundamental biology, genome structure and internal communication. Only when we really understand how their physiology works wi...y comes out of hiding and faces an immune response from the coral." This internal communication process, Weis said, is not unlike some of the biological proc...

Boston University biomedical engineers teach bacteria to count

...unted to two, and green at three. The network's counting can be linked to any periodic signal from the outside world the bacteria can detect, or to an internal event, such as a protein only expressed at one point during each cell division. Each counter has strengths. The RTC can count quickly and works be...

Triage technology with a Star Trek twist

...process can take 3-5 minutes per person. "Human nature is to pay attention to those who are screaming and bleeding, but someone with a less obvious internal injury may be the real top priority," said Greg Price, Director of S&T's Tech Solutions, whose office is managing a new DHS S&T project. "In the case...

'Disordered' amino acids may really be there to provide wiggle room for signaling protein

...utting the protein down. "The flexibility of the linker and its tendency to be more or less disordered are critical for regulating the balance between internal ("autoinhibitory") forces and external interactions with the protein's signaling partners" Roder says. This idea is reinforced by a recent observation...

The evolution of gene regulation

...ally inexplicable question of how proteins were regulated as a response to internal and external signals. The biology of regulation only came into its own as a... and diverse regulation mechanisms adapted the genetic activity of cells to internal and external conditions even in microorganisms. It is known, for examp...

Genetic testing for breast or ovarian cancer risk may be greatly underutilized

...ies of these cancers are even discussing genetic testing with their physicians or other health care providers. In a report in the Journal of General internal Medicine , which has been released online, investigators from the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Institute of Health Policy and Dana-Farber Canc...

Gene therapy could expand stem cells' promise

...the Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center, and the Bruce Webster Professor of internal Medicine and Professor of Genetic Medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College. Stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into any of the differe...
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