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Genomes in Biological News

After dinosaurs, mammals rise but their genomes get smaller

BLOOMINGTON, Ind. -- Evidence buried in the chromosomes of animals and plants strongly suggests only one group -- mammals -- have seen their genomes shrink after the dinosaurs' extinction. What's more, that trend continues today, say Indiana University Bloomington scientists in the first issue of ...

New computational technique allows comparison of whole genomes as easily as whole books

Berkeley -- Taking a hint from the text comparison methods used to detect plagiarism in books, college papers and computer programs, University of California, Berkeley, researchers have developed an improved method for comparing whole genome sequences. With nearly a thousand genomes partly or f...

Cold Spring Harbor Protocols features methods for analyzing genomes and plant cells

COLD SPRING HARBOR, N.Y. (Monday, June 2, 2008) With the sequencing of the human genome came the startling revelation that the number of copies of a genes and other DNA sequences can vary widely between individuals. This copy number variation (or CNV), contributes to our species' genetic diver...

Cold Spring Harbor Protocols features methods to screen genomes and analyze evolution

COLD SPRING HARBOR, N.Y. (Tuesday, April 1, 2008) Identifying genes that are important in specific tissues or processes in the mouse used to be a monumental task. New technologies and strategies have simplified this search, making it effective for even the smallest laboratories. This months i...

Latest Integrated Microbial Genomes data management system update release

WALNUT CREEK, CA--Version 2.4 of the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) data management system, a resource provided to the scientific community for microbial genome data analysis, has now been released. Hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (DOE JGI), IMG has built a popul...

Scientists decode genomes of diverse TB isolates

Cambridge, MA An international collaboration led by researchers in the US and South Africa today announced the first genome sequence of an extensively drug resistant (XDR) strain of the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one linked to more than 50 deaths in a recent tuberculosis (TB) outbreak ...

International team compares 12 fruit fly genomes

Cornell researchers have played a major role in an international scientific team that has compared the complete set of genes of 12 closely related fruit fly species. As well has having implications for human health -- from genetic adaptation to evolving immune systems -- the analysis paves the way...

2,000 influenza virus genomes now completed and publicly accessible

The Influenza Genome Sequencing Project, funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), one of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), announced today that it has achieved a major milestone. The entire genetic blueprints of more than 2,000 human and avian influenza vi...

Double trouble: Cells with duplicate genomes can trigger tumors

Abnormal cell division that yields cells with an extra set of chromosomes can initiate the development of tumors in mice, researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have shown, validating a controversial theory about cancer causation put forth by a scientific visionary nearly 100 years ago. The ...

Three deadly parasite genomes sequenced

Covering ship hulls with artificial shark skin could help ships sailing smoothly. The growth of marine organisms such as barnacles on ship hulls is a major cause of increased energy costs in the naval industry. Shark skin offers a structural design that prevents this so called 'bio-fouling'. Ralp...

Multiple Campylobacter Genomes Sequenced

In 1995, the first complete bacterial genome sequence was published. Now, nearly 200 bacterial genomes have been completed, and a new one hits the scientific press most weeks. This burgeoning industry is not just scientific “stamp collecting,?however. Having all these genome sequences may provide u...

One species, many genomes

Faster growth, darker leaves, a different way of branching - wild varieties of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana are often substantially different from the laboratory strain of this small mustard plant, a favorite of many plant biologists. Which detailed differences distinguish the genomes of strains...

Understanding how weeds are resistant to herbicides

...a member of the genus Amaranthus which includes weeds that are a problem worldwide such as pigweeds. "Because they all belong to the same genus, their genomes are very conserved. So if we have the sequence for the PPO gene in waterhemp you can use that information to get the PPO gene in redroot pigweed. It w...

Protecting cells from their neighbors

...ns the context of the study, "it is crucial to unveil all the actors and molecular mechanisms that participate in the repression and activation of the genomes of distinct species because failures in these mechanisms are at the bases of many diseases, such as certain types of cancer." FROM FLY TO HUMANS ...

Parasites ready to jump

...ine, 30 July 2009.) Transposons constitute a significant fraction of the genomes of most higher organisms. Indeed, it is estimated that these mobile element...ked by transposons. For example, certain viruses carry transposons in their genomes and introduce them into the host cells they infect. Therefore, transposon a...

Reviews of microbial gene language published in special issue of Trends in Microbiology

...ject, remarked: "Advances in sequencing technologies have led to a remarkable increase in the number of sequenced microbial genomes. Analysis of these genomes has provided useful information about genes that may be important in microbe-host interactions. However related genes that have a common function can ...

LincRNAs serve as genetic air-traffic controllers

...her with lincRNAs to target specific regions of the genome." Standard "textbook" genes encode RNAs that are translated into proteins, and mammalian genomes contain about 20,000 such protein-coding genes. Some genes, however, encode functional RNAs that are never translated into proteins. These include a h...

Mystery E. coli genes essential for survival of many species

... the Journal of Bacteriology . The effort over recent years to sequence genomes of various important species has uncovered many previously unknown genes. T...ding out that these genes are essential in E. coli and also appear in the genomes of other species tells us that they are very important indeed. In the case ...

Exploring standards to advance microbial genomics

...f the nearly 5,000 genome projects reported in the genomes OnLine Database ( http://www.genomesonline.org ) i...ment of the field. Although nearly 1,000 microbial genomes have been sequenced over the past 15 years, nearly...e decade ahead. For example, the list of microbial genomes for potential sequencing, limited to the approxima...

2 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center scientists receive Presidential Early Career Award

... hosts and viruses. The National Science Foundation funded a project of Malik's that will study and identify cases of "reverse mimicry," in which host genomes hijack viral proteins to protect themselves against viral infections. In particular he will focus on such a gene that he discovered while a postdoctor...

Springer to collaborate with the Human Genome Organization

...discounted rates. The HUGO Journal will focus on discoveries arising from the basic, clinical and population explorations of the human genome and genomes of organisms relevant to human health. The journal will publish primary research papers of the highest quality as well as in-depth review articles on...

Landmark project to map genomics of complex ant systems

...e Applied Sciences, Gerardo put together a project to not only sequence ant genomes for the first time, but also the genomes of some of the key bacteria and fungi associated with the gardens of these ...

New national genome center launched

...TGAC science will concentrate on understanding the genomes of economically and socially important plants, ani... and put animal welfare at risk. Understanding the genomes of livestock such as sheep will help breeders rais...oxidants. The sequencing of these and other genomes will create a huge amount of data. The successful ...

CSHL scientists harness logic of 'Sudoku' math puzzle to vastly enhance genome-sequencing capability

... research projects, the new method has tremendous potential for clinical applications. It can be used, says Hannon, to analyze specific regions of the genomes of a large population and identify individuals who carry mutations that cause genetic diseases a process known as genotyping. The CSHL team has a...

NYU Langone Medical Center awarded NIH grants totaling $1,560,000

...ions of human microbiome research. The HMP plans to award more than $115 million in research grants during the project to sequence up to 600 microbial genomes and for selected demonstration projects that will examine the relationship between the microbiome in a specific niche of the body with a particular di...

NIH expands Human Microbiome Project; funds sequencing centers and disease projects

...in the initial phase of the project. These centers will work together to sequence at least 400 microbial genomes. Another approximately 500 microbial genomes are already completed or in sequencing pipelines and supported by individual NIH institutes and internationally funded projects. These data will then ...

Prostate Cancer Translational Research in Europe meeting: Search for biomarkers continues

... of disease severity is ongoing." Polygene, one of the participating consortia, uses Genome-wide Association studies (see www.genome.gov) to analyse genomes responsible for cancers of the prostate and breast. However, current genetic risk models do not predict who will get progressive disease. Promark, ano...

The SIB recognizes the next generation of bioinformaticians

...a- and interprotein interactions with greatly improved accuracy. Dr. Burger explains the importance of such a methodology, "As the number of sequenced genomes has grown exponentially over the last years, multiple alignments of many protein families now contain more than 100 homologous sequences(and some even...

Plant microbe shares features with drug-resistant pathogen

...allowing them to thrive in very diverse environments. The scientists were particularly interested in comparing two strains of S. maltophilia whose genomes were recently decoded to see why these strains - one isolated as an opportunistic pathogen from a clinical setting (strain K279a), and the other from ...

Horse whisperers, lion tamers not needed: Scientists find genetic regions that soothe savage beasts

...e genetics plays a large role in the process, and this research provides a solid scientific explanation of this phenomenon, and offers clues about how genomes can be manipulated to breed tame animals of species once believed to be untamable." ...

DOE JGI releases expanded version of Phytozome.net

...GI). Phytozome provides a central "hub" for web access to a rapidly growing number of plant genomes, and includes tools for visualization of plant genomes and associated annotations, sequence analysis, and bulk, as well as targeted, plant data retrieval. The gene families available in Phytozome, defined...

Boston University biomedical engineers teach bacteria to count

...ogy addresses biological research questions with an engineering approach. Researchers design and build networks of genes, splicing them into bacterial genomes to run specific tasks or manufacture desired molecules a process akin to installing biological computer software. Though the field is rapidly advanci...

Rapid approach to identify influenza A virus mutations and drug resistance developed

...from patients. The new method, which enables scientists to amplify full genomes of influenza A viruses and sequence them within a day, was developed at the...en's microarray-based customised platform is able to sequence as many as 36 genomes per day per chip reader device. ...

Visualizing virus replication in three dimensions

...w that replication of the virus genome and its encapsulation in new virus particles are directly linked," said Professor Bartenschlager. The new virus genomes are secreted through pores into the intracellular space where they are incorporated into pre-stages of viruses and then penetrate the endoplasmic reti...

Stowers researchers develop whole genome sequencing approach for mutation discovery

...rest in just a few weeks. The next-generation sequencing technology used for this project is extremely exciting. It will allow researchers to sequence genomes for a few thousand dollars, a cost unheard of just a few years ago. It will also enable them to take their science in new directions and answer new qu...

Genome projects launched for three extreme-environment animals

...ts that focus on animals living in extreme environments. The three selected genomes are those of two polar animals: the polar bear and emperor penguin, and one...so because it is assuming strong responsibility for society. Sequencing the genomes of endangered species is of significant scientific and social value, and we...

Plant gene mapping may lead to better biofuel production

...t instruct cells to make a variety of enzymes important in a wide range of plant functions," said Brookhaven biologist Chang-Jun Liu. By searching the genomes of woody Poplar trees and leafy Arabidopsis, the scientists identified 94 and 61 genes they suspected belonged to this family in those two species, re...

Genes from tiny marine algae suggest unsuspected avenues for new research

...Worden led a team of scientists that sequenced the genomes of two Prasinophytes in the genus Micromonas . Ea...nificant number of genes that are not found in the genomes of other green algae (at least not in the five or ... for investigating carbon flow." Sequencing the genomes of two small marine algae may not seem to have man...

Genes from tiny algae shed light on big role managing carbon in world's oceans

...y Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) have decoded genomes of two algal strains, highlighting the genes enabl...pproximately 10,000 genes in each, compressed into genomes totaling about 22 million nucleotides. "Yet, surp...rgest number of sequenced genomes. With these four genomes in hand--two Micromonas and two Ostreococcus --...

Rhythmic genomics -- the yeast metronome and the walk of life

...In a paper published in Genome Research scientists show how ribosomal RNA genes that are essential to all Earth's organisms provide insight into how genomes maintain their integrity on their evolutionary journey. Ribosomal RNA sequence changes have been ticking away like clockwork for over 3 billion yea...
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