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Function in Biological News

Plastics chemical retards growth, function of adult reproductive cells

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. Bisphenol A, a chemical widely used in plastics and known to cause reproductive problems in the offspring of pregnant mice exposed to it, also has been found to retard the growth of follicles of adult mice and hinder their production of steroid hormones, researchers report. The...

LSUHSC research describes function of key protein in cancer spread

New Orleans, LA Research led by David Worthylake, PhD, Assistant Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at LSU Health Sciences Center New Orleans, may help lay the groundwork for the development of a compound to prevent the spread of cancer. The research will be published in the May 29,...

Brain's problem-solving function at work when we daydream

A new University of British Columbia study finds that our brains are much more active when we daydream than previously thought. The study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , finds that activity in numerous brain regions increases when our minds wander. It also ...

ISU researcher identifies key function in protein, cell transcription

AMES, Iowa -- When cells decide to make proteins, key building blocks of all organisms, they need to know where to start reading the instructions for assembling them. An Iowa State University researcher has figured out a mechanism involved in marking where these instructions are located in a c...

Stem cell infusion and hyperbaric oxygen treatment improve islet function in diabetes

Tampa, Fla. (Mar. 12, 2009) A study to determine if patients with type 2 diabetes can benefit from a combination of autologous (patient self-donated) stem cell infusions (ASC) and hyperbaric (above the normal air pressure of ) oxygen treatment (HBO) before and after ASC has found "significant ben...

Protein function and chromatin structure methods featured in Cold Spring Harbor Protocols

COLD SPRING HARBOR, N.Y. (Tues., March 3, 2009) Two new methods for analyzing the roles played by proteins in cells are featured in the March issue of Cold Spring Harbor Protocols ( www.cshprotocols.org/TOCs/toc3_09.dtl ). Thomas J. Wandless and colleagues from Stanford University ( http://w...

Updated formula measures kidney function more accurately

Measuring kidney function in children can be expensive, time-consuming for clinicians, and tedious for children, who may be exposed to radioactivity and subjected to a large number of blood draws. A new calculation eliminates many of these obstacles, relying instead on various blood tests that can...

Researchers identify new function of protein in cellular respiration

RICHMOND, Va. (Jan. 28, 2009) Virginia Commonwealth University researchers have found that the protein Stat3 plays a key role in regulating mitochondria, the energy-producing machines of cells. This discovery could one day lead to the development of new treatments for heart disease to boost energ...

Compromised skin barrier function plays a role in psorasis development

Researchers at the Genome Institute of Singapore (GIS) and the Anhui Medical University, China, have identified genes that play an important role in the development of psoriasis, a common chronic skin disease. The research, led by GIS Human Genetics Group Leader and Associate Prof. Liu Jianjun,...

Smoking during pregnancy may impair thyroid function of mom and fetus

Chevy Chase, MDCigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with potentially harmful changes in both maternal and fetal thyroid function, according to a new study accepted for publication in The Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism ( JCEM ). "We studied the i...

GUMC researchers find gene function 'lost' in melanoma and glioblastoma

Washington, D.C. Researchers at Georgetown University Medical Center have found a gene they say is inactivated in two aggressive cancers malignant melanoma, a form of skin cancer, and glioblastoma multiforme, a lethal brain tumor. They add that because this gene, known as PTPRD, has recently bee...

New research shows how gene function drives natural selection in important class of genetic elements

Athens, Ga. Transposons are the Clark Kents of a genome. Apparently mild-mannered and inconsequential but with sudden bursts of activity, these free-floating bits of genetic material have for millions of years been sneaking into the genetic maps of plants and animals, dramatically increasing a ge...

Transplanted fat cells restore function after spinal cord injury

Tampa, Fla. (Dec. 10, 2008) A study published in the current issue of CELL TRANSPLANTATION (Vol.17, No. 8) suggests that mature adipocytes - fat cells - could become a source for cell replacement therapy to treat central nervous system disorders. According to the study's lead researcher, Dr. ...

Caltech scientists show function of helical band in heart

PASADENA, Calif.--Scientists from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have created images of the heart's muscular layer that show, for the first time, the connection between the configuration of those muscles and the way the human heart contracts. More precisely, they showed that t...

Tool helps identify gene function in soybeans

COLUMBIA, Mo. In the race for bioengineered crops, sequencing the genome could be considered the first leg in a multi-leg relay. Once the sequence is complete, the baton is passed forward to researchers to identify genes' functions. A draft sequence of the soybean genome is now available, and the...

Kidney function discovery sheds light on genetic complexity of disease

To find a cure for cancer, haemophilia and other diseases, researchers need to be looking for complex, interacting genetic factors, according to the authors of a new study. A new study, published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation by researchers at the Centenary Institute, Royal Prince ...

Interaction between gene variants may alter brain function in schizophrenia

A collaborative study led by investigators from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) is giving what may be the first look at how interactions between genes underlie a key symptom of schizophrenia, impaired working memory. Functional imaging studies reveal how a combination of common variants in t...

Drug-embedded microparticles bolster heart function in animal studies

Researchers at Emory University and Georgia Institute of Technology have developed tiny polymer beads that can slowly release anti-inflammatory drugs and break down into non-toxic components. When injected into rats' hearts after a simulated heart attack, the drug-embedded "microparticles" redu...

Key to function of dinosaur crests found in brain structure

Paleontologists have long debated the function of the strange, bony crests on the heads of the duck-billed dinosaurs known as lambeosaurs. The structures contain incredibly long, convoluted nasal passages that loop up over the tops of their skulls. Scientists at the University of Toronto, Ohio ...

Brain structure provides key to unraveling function of bizarre dinosaur crests

ATHENS, Ohio (Oct. 16, 2008) Paleontologists have long debated the function of the strange, bony crests on the heads of the duck-billed dinosaurs known as lambeosaurs. The structures contain incredibly long, convoluted nasal passages that loop up over the tops of their skulls. Scientists at t...

New tool probes function of rice genes

A new tool for investigating the rice genome has been developed by researchers at UC Davis led by Pamela Ronald, professor of plant pathology. The inexpensive, publicly-available rice DNA microarray covers nearly all the 45,000 genes in the rice genome. Details are published this week in the open-...

Atomic-resolution views suggest function of enzyme that regulates light-detecting signals in eye

An atomic-resolution view of an enzyme found only in the eye has given researchers at the University of Washington (UW) clues about how this enzyme, essential to vision, is activated. The enzyme, phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6), is central to the way light entering the retina is converted into a cascad...

Lichens function as indicators of nitrogen pollution in forests

Scientists have found lichens can give insight into nitrogen air pollution effects on Sierra Nevada and San Bernardino mountain ecosystems, and protecting them provides safeguards for less sensitive species. Their findings are presented this month in the international journal Environmental Poll...

Ikaria(R) Receives FDA Orphan Drug Designation for Inhaled Carbon Monoxide for Delayed Graft Function in Solid Organ Transplants

CLINTON, N.J., July 28 /PRNewswire/ -- Ikaria Holdings, Inc., a fully integrated critical care biotherapeutics company, announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted orphan drug designation for inhaled carbon monoxide for use in the reduction of the incidence and...

In scientific first, Einstein researchers correct decline in organ function associated with old age

(BRONX, NY) As people age, their cells become less efficient at getting rid of damaged protein resulting in a buildup of toxic material that is especially pronounced in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. Now, for the first time, scientists at the Albert ...

Ikaria(R) Receives FDA Orphan Drug Designation for Inhaled Carbon Monoxide for Delayed Graft Function in Solid Organ Transplants

CLINTON, N.J., July 28 /PRNewswire/ -- Ikaria Holdings, Inc., a fully integrated critical care biotherapeutics company, announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted orphan drug designation for inhaled carbon monoxide for use in the reduction of the incidence and...

UCLA researchers clarify function of glucose transport molecule

Researchers at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA have solved the structure of a class of proteins known as sodium glucose co-transporters (SGLTs), which pump glucose into cells. These transport proteins are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhea via oral rehydration therapy, saving th...

Mechanism and function of humor identified by new evolutionary theory

A new publication answers centuries' old questions regarding the mechanism and function of humour, identifying the reason humour is common to all human societies, its fundamental role in the evolution of homo sapiens and its continuing importance in the cognitive development of infants. Alastai...

Glypican-3 gene function in regulating body size helps inform novel cancer treatments

Toronto (May 13, 2008) - In a leading study that has implications for the development of novel therapies for a number of breast, lung and ovarian cancers that have lost the expression of a gene called glypican-3 (GPC3), Sunnybrook researchers have discovered how the loss of the GPC3 gene induces o...

Mass. General study shows how exercise changes structure and function of heart

For the first time researchers are beginning to understand exactly how various forms of exercise impact the heart. Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) investigators, in collaboration with the Harvard University Health Services, have found that 90 days of vigorous athletic training produces signi...

New study shows that fetal cells to treat Parkinson's disease may not function long term

Neurons grafted into the brain of a patient with Parkinsons disease fourteen years ago have developed Lewy body pathology, the defining pathology for the disease, according to research by Jeffrey H. Kordower, PhD, and associates and published in the April 6 issue of Nature Medicine. The finding ...

Veterinary college researchers explore function of biofilm in bovine respiratory disease

p>Blacksburg, Va.--Dr. Thomas J. Inzana, the Tyler J. and Frances F. Young Professor of Bacteriology in the Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology in the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech, has been awarded a grant from the United States Departmen...

Vitamin B-12 function may be diminished by excessive folate

BOSTON (December 18, 2007) In a study of adults aged 20 and over, researchers at Tufts University showed that homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are at much higher levels in individuals who have a combination of vitamin B12 deficiency and high blood folate levels than in individuals who are als...

Breathless babies: Preemies' lung function shows prolonged impairment

Many premature babies face serious health challenges, not the least of which is breathing. But now research suggests that even relatively healthy preemies confront deficits in lung function that last into their second year, if not longer. We have shown that healthy preterm infants have reduced...

Unlocking the function of enzymes

COLLEGE STATION, Nov. 6, 2007 Fitting a key into a lock may seem like a simple task, but researchers at Texas A&M University are using a method that involves testing thousands of keys to unlock the functions of enzymes, and their findings could open the door for new targets for drug designs. T...

Elevated nitric oxide in blood is key to high altitude function for Tibetans

CLEVELANDHow can some people live at high altitudes and thrive while others struggle to obtain enough oxygen to function? The answer for Tibetans who live at altitudes around 14,000 feet is increased nitric oxide (NO) levels. High levels of NO circulate in various forms in the blood and produce...

Systems Biology poised to revolutionize the understanding of cell function and disease

Systems Biology is transforming the way scientists think about biology and disease. This novel approach to research could prompt a shake up in medical science and it might ultimately allow clinicians to predict and treat complex diseases such as diabetes, heart failure, cancer, and metabolic syndr...

Device helps patients survive, regain function til transplant

ANN ARBOR, Mich. A new generation of implanted heart-assisting pump does very well at helping severely ill heart-failure patients survive, and thrive, until they receive a heart transplant, a new study shows. And, in addition to helping 75 percent of patients stay alive for at least six month...

Geron Demonstrates hESC-derived cardiomyocytes improve heart function after myocardial infarction

MENLO PARK, Calif., Aug. 27, 2007 Geron Corporation (Nasdaq: GERN) today reported its scientists and collaborators have demonstrated that human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cardiomyocytes improve heart function when transplanted after myocardial infarction. Published online Aug. 26 in N...

Chemical found in medical devices impairs heart function

Researchers at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine have found that a chemical commonly used in the production of such medical plastic devices as intravenous (IV) bags and catheters can impair heart function in rats. Appearing online this week in the American Journal of Physiology , th...
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