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Mystery E. coli genes essential for survival of many species

Scientists have shown that E. coli one of the best known and extensively studied organisms in the world remains an enigma that may hold the key to human diseases, such as cancer. The team, funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and based at the Univers...

New guide to tropical seedlings: Essential to climate change research

The enormous trees forming rainforest canopies bear little resemblance to their seedlings, many described for the first time in the new field guide, "Seedlings of Barro Colorado Island and the Neotropics," published in July 2009 by Cornell University Press. Author Nancy Garwood, professor of plant...

New edition available for essential virology reference

ASM Press announces the latest edition of an essential reference volume in one of the most dynamic and rapidly changing fields of clinical medicine. Covering novel viruses, pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, Clinical Virology informs scientists and health care pr...

New lab manual focuses on essential methods for purifying and characterizing proteins

COLD SPRING HARBOR, N.Y. (Oct. 7, 2008) A new, user-friendly laboratory manual for protein purification and analysis has just been released by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Designed for routine, day-to-day use in the laboratory, it includes essential step-wise protocols as well as backg...

Researchers find an essential gene for forming ears of corn

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) professor David Jackson, Ph.D., and a team of plant geneticists have identified a gene essential in controlling development of the maize plant, commonly known in the United States as corn. The new research extends the growing biological understanding of how the...

Substantial improvement in essential cheap solar cell process

A cheap alternative to silicon solar cells can be found in dye-sensitised solar cells. This type of cell imitates the natural conversion of sunlight into energy by, for instance, plants and light-sensitive bacteria. Annemarie Huijser has succeeded in substantially improving a process in this type ...

Trainor Lab characterizes gene essential for prenatal development of nervous system

The Stowers Institutes Trainor Lab has demonstrated the role of a gene important to the embryonic development of the nervous system, a process that requires coordination of differentiation of immature neural cells with the cycle of cell division that increases their numbers. Until now, the mechani...

Earth Observation essential for geohazard mitigation

Every year geohazards such as volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides and tsunamis claim thousands of lives, devastate homes and destroy livelihoods. In an effort to reduce their impact, more than 250 scientists from around the world gathered for a five-day workshop at ESAs Earth Observation Centre i...

ESA to provide essential launch control services to EUMETSAT

ESA and EUMETSAT, the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, agreed today that ESA will provide essential launch control services for the last two Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites, MSG-3 and MSG-4. Under the agreement, ESA will provide control servic...

How did chemical constituents essential to life arise on primitive Earth?

Experiments show that simple molecules can combine chemically rather than biologically to form the building blocks of DNA, the key component of all life forms. These processes might have taken place on primitive earth, but how they occur is an unsolved puzzle. Chemists at the University of Geor...

Study shows vitamin C is essential for plant growth

Scientists from the University of Exeter and Shimane University in Japan have proved for the first time that vitamin C is essential for plant growth. This discovery could have implications for agriculture and for the production of vitamin C dietary supplements. The study, which is now published...

New study reveals large scale conservation essential

(Arlington, VA) June 10, 2008 -- Scientists were surprised with findings of a recent study that reveals many animal species believed to persist in small contained areas actually need broad, landscape level conservation to survive. With more species at risk of extinction today than any other tim...

Groovy protein essential for promoting cancer development

Scientists have determined the detailed structure of an essential piece of the telomerase enzyme, an important contributor to the vast majority of human cancers. Understanding the physical shape of the protein has led to a better understanding of how it acts to immortalize cells ?and should help sc...

New mechanism for essential genome-wide gene silencing identified

Most of the time in most cells of the body, the great majority of genes are silenced, locked away within the compacted but orderly material that makes up chromosomes. Estimates are that only about 10 percent of the roughly 25,000 genes in the human genome are activated, or "on," at any given time i...

Largest computational biology simulation mimics life’s most essential nanomachine

With preliminary results from a study in Botswana, Harvard School of Public Health researchers have found that people with HIV-1 subtype C in resource-poor settings, who receive antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, can achieve comparable results to those in the developed world. A fully supported health ca...

An essential regulator of body weight revealed

Scientists are one step closer to unraveling the complex mechanisms in the brain that regulate body weight. Working with mice -- whose appetites are controlled by systems very similar to those in humans -- they have identified a specific type of neuron that is essential for feeding behavior. Withou...

Researchers feed tiny pills of RNA to planarians to identify genes essential for regeneration

University of Utah researchers-feeding microscopic pills of RNA to quarter-inch long worms called planarians-have identified many genes essential to understanding a biological mystery that has captivated scientists for hundreds of years: regeneration. In pinpointing the genes, the U School of Me...

Scientists identify genetic pathways essential to RNA interference

A research team based at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) has identified 80 new genes essential to the process of RNA interference (RNAi), a powerful new research tool for inactivating genes in plants or animals. They used the RNAi process itself to find new genes that participate in the gene-s...

Scientists identify genetic pathways essential to RNA interference

A research team based at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) has identified 80 new genes essential to the process of RNA interference (RNAi), a powerful new research tool for inactivating genes in plants or animals. They used the RNAi process itself to find new genes that participate in the gene-s...

AGU journal highlights -- Aug. 6, 2009

...in the implementation of the LCC, different land surface models, and different ways of representing the landscape. The researchers conclude that it is essential to include LCC in future regional and global climate studies but that it is not feasible to impose them in a common way across multiple models for the...

Scientists decoding genomic sequences of H1N1 using isolates from outbreak in Argentina

...ce the effectiveness of vaccines or drugs used to fight the pandemic. "No one knows how this pandemic will evolve. Continuous surveillance will be essential to focusing both research and public health response. We are analyzing these isolates in New York and Argentina; nonetheless, we expect that members o...

MU researchers create drought conditions to unearth solutions

...estigator and professor of plant sciences. "The ability to manage the timing, duration and intensity of water deficit stress under field conditions is essential to examine plant responses to drought. Thus, the drought simulators will bridge the gap between controlled environment facilities, such as growth cham...

Family planning a major environmental impact

... carbon emissions of an individual over his or her lifetime," said Paul Murtaugh, an OSU professor of statistics. "Those are important issues and it's essential that they should be considered. But an added challenge facing us is continuing population growth and increasing global consumption of resources." I...

Parasites ready to jump

...he cell to recognize and destroy messenger RNAs derived from transposons. The researchers in Frstemann's group were able to identify a protein that is essential for the production of endo-siRNAs. It turns out that this is a previously unknown variant of the protein "Loquacious". In Drosophila, Loquacious can b...

Iron isotopes as a tool in oceanography

...ld's oceans have low primary production despite having plenty of macronutrients such as phosphate, nitrate and silicate. This is due a shortage of the essential micro-nutrient iron, which is needed for the growth of phytoplankton. These tiny, plant-like organisms sit at the base of the marine food chain and co...

UCSF researchers identify new drug target for Kaposi's sarcoma

...rus family, take the form of a dimer, or two identical halves much like a fully opened clamshell in their most stable state. Those proteases play an essential role in making the virus infectious, but require the two clamshell halves to bind together to be activated, according to the paper. The HIV protea...

Humans 'damaging the oceans'

... threats for the oceans and their life," Andrew and Mike say. "Given how essential the oceans are to how our entire planet functions it is vital that we inter...ke cautions. "On a global scale, an immediate reduction in CO2 emissions is essential to minimize future human-induced climate change." The oceans can also pl...

First genetically-engineered malaria vaccine to enter human trials

...y as the genes had been deleted from the genome and could not be recreated by the parasite. "In addition, the 'one-two punch' approach of deleting two essential genes make it extremely unlikely that the attenuated parasite vaccine could restore its capacity to multiply and lead to disease," he said. The huma...

Scientists track impact of DNA damage in the developing brain

...orts sparked new interest in single-strand DNA repair. This study focused on Xrcc1, a protein long recognized as the master regulator of a pathway essential for single-strand DNA repair in the nervous system. The brain is thought to be particularly susceptible to such damage because neurons consume large a...

Red List overlooks island species

... The criteria of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN)'s Red List are an essential tool for evaluating the conservation status of species around the planet, and according to these criteria all the species in the Canary Islands are en...

Grant supports LSUHSC research on how like cell receptor systems determine very different functions

...ns of a pathway might be targeted therapeutically while not eliminating all essential housekeeping functions of the pathway," Dr. Catling says. "The beauty of re...redictable outcomes." These key personnel and the data they generate are essential to submit a competitive renewal of this RO1 grant in November. ...

Silicon with afterburners: Process developed at Rice could be boon to electronics manufacturer

...years. But even Moore has said the law cannot be sustained indefinitely. The challenge is to get past the limits of doping, a process that has been essential to creating the silicon substrate that is at the heart of all modern integrated circuits, said James Tour, Rice's Chao Professor of Chemistry and prof...

Scientists discover gene mutation responsible for hereditary neuroendocrine tumor

...ndrial protein that is highly conserved, meaning that it has remained largely unchanged throughout the course of evolution and likely performs similar essential cellular functions in both yeast and humans. Rutter and his colleagues discovered that, in yeast, the Sdh5 protein is needed for the SDH complex to fu...

Sticky protein helps reinforce fragile muscle membranes

...suggests that these viruses disrupt the dystroglycan basal lamina interaction, rendering the cell membrane susceptible to rupture. "Considering how essential cell membranes are for life, these barriers are remarkably fragile. In addition, many tissues, including muscle, GI tract and skin, are constantly und...

Salt marshes: A natural and unnatural history

...HES: A Natural and Unnatural History (Paper $23.95, August 2009, 978-0-8135-4570-7), by Judith S. Weis and Carol A. Butler, offers readers a wealth of essential information about a variety of plants, fish, and animals, the importance of these habitats, consequences of human neglect and thoughtless development,...

Vaccine blocks malaria transmission in lab experiments

... humans. The study is published in the July 22 edition of the journal PLoS ONE . "Development of a successful transmission-blocking vaccine is an essential step in efforts to control the global spread of malaria. In our study, we demonstrate the relative ease of expression and induction of potent transmis...

Life on Earth came from other planets

...-life has miserably failed and up until now every theory proposed to explain the origin of life has been found wanting. The early Earth lacked all the essential ingredients for creating life, and even so called "prebiotic" substances would have been immediately destroyed by the harsh conditions which initially...

UK bioscience sparkles with new Diamond fellowship

...d give some of our most outstanding bioscientists an extra boost. "It is vital that we nurture scientists throughout their careers, as they will be essential to helping us tackle the major challenges we face." The Fellowships, lasting from three to five years, allow researchers to concentrate exclusively...

Healing power of aloe vera proves beneficial for teeth and gums, too

...ns that aloe "must not be treated with excessive heat or filtered during the manufacturing process, as this destroys or reduces the effects of certain essential compounds, such as enzymes and polysaccharides." Dr. George suggests that consumers consult non-profit associations such as the International Aloe Sci...

Reviews of microbial gene language published in special issue of Trends in Microbiology

...e Data Analysis and Coordination Center for the HMP. The application of standards such as the Gene Ontology, and particularly the PAMGO terms, will be essential to make sense of the massive amounts of metagenomic annotation that will be collected during this project." Another paper in the series looks at h...
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