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Earliest in Biological News

The life histories of the earliest land animals

The fossil record usually shows what adult animals looked like. But the appearance and lifestyle of juvenile animals often differ dramatically from those of the adults. A classic example is provided by frogs and salamanders. New discoveries from Uppsala, Cambridge and Duke Universities, published ...

New research reveals the earliest evidence for corn in the New World

Among the hundreds of plants that have been domesticated in the New World, none has received as much attention or been subject to as much debate as corn, or maize (Zea mays L.), arguably the most important crop of the Americas. Controversies have existed for years over what the wild ancestor of ma...

Researchers find the earliest evidence of domesticated maize

Maize was domesticated from its wild ancestor more than 8700 years according to biological evidence uncovered by researchers in the Mexico's Central Balsas River Valley. This is the earliest dated evidence -- by 1200 years -- for the presence and use of domesticated maize. The researchers, led...

Evidence of earliest known domestic horses found in Kazakhstan

The earliest known domesticated horses were both ridden and milked according to a new report published in the March 6, 2009 edition of the journal Science . The findings by an international team of archaeologists could point to the very beginnings of horse domestication and help explain its early...

Engineering technology pinpoints earliest signs of animal life

Scientists using revolutionary new technology developed at The University of Nottingham have recorded the earliest evidence of animal life so far. Using a scientific technique known as Hydropyrolysis (using hydrogen gas at high pressure) they have been able to date chemical fossils discovered i...

Researchers devise means to create blood by identifying earliest stem cells

Johns Hopkins researchers have discovered the earliest form of human blood stem cells and deciphered the mechanism by which these embryonic stem cells replicate and grow. They also found a surprising biological marker that pinpoints these stem cells, which serve as the progenitors for red blood c...

More acidic ocean could spell trouble for marine life's earliest stages

Increasingly acidic conditions in the oceanbrought on as a direct result of rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmospherecould spell trouble for the earliest stages of marine life, according to a new report in the August 5th issue of Current Biology , a publication of Cell Press. Levels of acidi...

Scientists confirm that parts of earliest genetic material may have come from the stars

Scientists have confirmed for the first time that an important component of early genetic material which has been found in meteorite fragments is extraterrestrial in origin, in a paper published on 15 June 2008. The finding suggests that parts of the raw materials to make the first molecules of...

UI anthropologist, colleagues discover remains of earliest giant panda

Although it may sound like an oxymoron, a University of Iowa anthropologist and his colleagues report the first discovery of a skull from a "pygmy-sized" giant panda -- the earliest-known ancestor of the giant panda -- that lived in south China some two million years ago. The ancestor of today's...

Man's earliest direct ancestors looked more apelike than previously believed

Modern man"s earliest known close ancestor was significantly more apelike than previously believed, a New York University College of Dentistry professor has found. A computer-generated reconstruction by Dr. Timothy Bromage, a paleoanthropologist and Adjunct Professor of Biomaterials and of Basi...

Embryos tell story of Earth's earliest animals

Much of what scientists learn about the evolution of Earth's first animals will have to be gleaned from spherical embryos fossilized under very specific conditions, according to a new study by Indiana University Bloomington and University of Bristol researchers in this week's Proceedings of the Nat...

The earliest animals had human-like genes

Species evolve at very different rates, and the evolutionary line that produced humans seems to be among the slowest. The result, according to a new study by scientists at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), is that our species has retained characteristics of a very ancient ancestor t...

Unchecked DNA replication drives earliest steps toward cancer

Although not widely appreciated as a disease of the genes, cancer is always rooted in genetic errors or problems in gene regulation. Scientists have identified some of the first genetic triggers for cancer as mutations in specific oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Full-blown tumors and metastati...

Iron isotopes as a tool in oceanography

...s may be a unique tracer of sediment respiration by dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria. Dissimilatory iron reduction is thought to be one of the earliest metabolic pathways on Earth , thus sedimentary iron isotopes may also be useful in reconstructing past iron cycling in the ancient ocean. Pore-flui...

Large trees declining in Yosemite

...iameter trees in the park declined 24 percent between the 1930s and 1990s. U.S. Geological Survey and University of Washington scientists compared the earliest records of large-diameter trees densities from 1932� to the most recent records from 1988�. A decline in large trees means habitat lo...

Early initiation of Arctic sea-ice formation

...d fossilised Synedropsis species so well preserved and in such abundance is truly remarkable." In fact, the ACEX Synedropsis species represent the earliest known fossil record of sea-ice diatoms. The researchers attribute the presence of Synedropsis fossils in these sediments to the presence of sea i...

Fish on the menu of our ancestors

...vailable in German . The isotopic analysis of a bone from one of the earliest modern humans in Asia, the 40,000 year old skeleton from Tianyuan Cave in t...part of the staple diet. The isotopic analysis of the diet of one of the earliest modern humans in Asia, the 40,000 year old skeleton from Tianyuan Cave near...

First direct evidence of substantial fish consumption by early modern humans in China

...and sulfur in particular, can show whether such fish consumption was an occasional treat or a regular food item. Analysis of a bone from one of the earliest modern human in Asia, the 40,000-year-old skeleton from Tianyuan Cave near Beijing, has shown that at least this individual was a regular fish consume...

New biomarker method could increase the number of diagnostic tests for cancer

...ratories and a variety of instruments so that cancer can be detected in its earliest stages. The results of the Clinical Proteomic Technology Assessment for...ause biomarkers have the potential to allow doctors to detect cancer in the earliest stages, when treatment provides the greatest chances of survival," said Joh...

American Chemical Society weekly presspac -- June 10, 2009

...sing expectations, they say, for development of long-sought diagnostic and screening tests that literally sniff out chronic renal failure (CRF) in its earliest and most treatable stages. Their report is in the current issue of ACS Nano , a monthly journal. In the new study, Hossam Haick and colleagues po...

CU-Boulder study shows 53 million-year-old high Arctic mammals wintered in darkness

...Pittsburg discovered fossil alligator jaw bones. Since then, fossils of aquatic turtles, giant tortoises, snakes and even flying lemurs -- one of the earliest forms of primates -- have been found on Ellesmere Island, said Eberle. The new Geology study also foreshadows the impacts of continuing global wa...

Stanford's Woods Institute awards new round of Environmental Venture Projects

...ng a new, 'mature' phase," said Kennedy, professor emeritus of history and director of Stanford's Bill Lane Center for the American West. "Many of the earliest projects funded by the program have now come to completion, and several of those have gone on to secure continuing funding from outside agencies." ...

Diuscovery in amber reveals ancient biology of termites

...rotozoa, which even then were providing a key function for the termite they helped it to digest wood. Between animals and microorganisms, this is the earliest example ever discovered of "mutualism," which is one type of symbiotic relationship in which two species help each other. "Termites live on cellulo...

Focus on the formation of bones, teeth and shells

...ers at Eindhoven University of Technology for the first time have shown the earliest stages in biomineralization, the process that leads to the formation of bon...at the TU/e Faculty of Chemical Technology managed to capture images of the earliest stages of this type of biomimetically led mineralisation reaction. ...

Pliable proteins keep photosynthesis on the light path

...d a hardy, well-studied, photosynthetic bacterium called Rhodobacter sphaeroides . An organism similar to this purple bacterium was likely one of the earliest photosynthetic bacteria to evolve. The purple bacteria possess a simplified system similar to photosystem II. The center stage of photosynthesis is...

Breast health center gives TGen new research opportunities

...s 3, 19646 N. 27th Ave., just southwest of Interstate 17 and Loop 101, in northwest Phoenix. "Our new state-of-the-art medical equipment allows the earliest possible detection of breast cancers when survival rates are highest and treatment is less invasive," said Sherry Gage, Clinical Director of John C. L...

New early detection studies of lung cancer in non-smokers launched today

...D., director of the National Cancer Institute. "Identification of biomarkers, which tell us who is at risk for cancer and help diagnose cancer at the earliest possible stages, is an important priority in cancer prevention research and a key component in efforts to reduce the burden of this disease." ...

Fossil evidence of missing link in the origin of seals, sea lions, walruses found in Canadian Arctic

...four mammalian taxa: shrew, rabbit, rhinoceros, and small artiodactyl (small short-legged herbivores, ancestors to modern giraffes and deer). The earliest well-represented pinniped, Enaliarctos a marine form with flippershas been found on northern Pacific shores of North America. It had been theorized f...

Field Museum paleontologist leads study on two new dinosaurs from China

... decade has witnessed the discovery of some of the earliest tyrannosaurs from China and England. However, unti...espite this difference, Xionguanlong does mark the earliest appearance of several hallmark traits of larger, g...rent kinds of dinosaurs, and represents one of the earliest instances of both the environmental sorting of ani...

Unlikely life thriving at Antarctica's Blood Falls

...in the School of Earth and Space Exploration and the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. Even the earliest explorers noted the massive red stain at the snout of the glacier and speculated as to what may have caused it. Some guessed that red alga was respons...

New nucleotide could revolutionize epigenetics

... called 5-methylcytosine. This modification in the promoter region of a gene results in gene silencing. Some regional DNA methylation occurs in the earliest stages of life, influencing differentiation of embryonic stem cells into the different cell types that constitute the diverse organs, tissues and syst...

Image processing and mathematical morphology in new text by NJIT professor

...ill provide the necessary data and methodology to master current theoretical developments and applications, and create new ones. Shih was among the earliest researchers to initiate mathematical morphology research with applications to image processing, feature extraction, and object representation. "Thresh...

Image processing and mathematical morphology in new text by NJIT prof

...ill provide the necessary data and methodology to master current theoretical developments and applications, and create new ones. Shih was among the earliest researchers to initiate mathematical morphology research with applications to image processing, feature extraction, and object representation. "Thresh...

Distinguishing single cells with nothing but light

...go activation and react to stimuli in real-time. The ability to know not only about the aggregate responses of cells, but also be able to observe the earliest changes among individual cells, may be of profound importance in time-critical areas, such as cancer research and immunology. "There's an obvious d...

April 2009 Geology and GSA Today media highlights

... and dugongs) have been primary consumers in tropical and subtropical shallow-water marine ecosystems for over 50 million years. Though fossils of the earliest sirenians have been recovered from the Caribbean, sirenians are thought to have originated in the Tethys-Mediterranean region, which experienced signi...

Teeth of Columbus' crew flesh out tale of new world discovery

...gy. Now, however, science is taking interrogation of the dead to new heights. In a study that promises fresh and perhaps personal insight into the earliest European visitors to the New World, a team or researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Madison is extracting the chemical details of life history ...

Tiny samples could yield big predictive markers for pancreatic cancer

...pose patients to additional radiation (i.e., if computerized tomography, or CT scans, are used), and may not always detect cancers within cysts at its earliest stages. "What we need are methods to identify benign cysts that do not have significant cancer risk, so that we can concentrate on the cysts that hav...

'Undesirable' evolution can be reversed in fish, Stony Brook University scientists show

...ifferent species and the links between species and environmental influences, rather than managing each species in isolation. Dr. Pikitch was among the earliest proponents of EBFM, and lead author of a seminal 2004 article in Science on the concept. "We have interfered extensively with the natural course o...

Cutting-edge amfAR grants fight HIV/AIDS in the lab and on the phone

...envisioned as a means of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV, but to date human trials of such products have not been successful. Preventing the earliest events in virus transmission constitutes an ideal point of intervention, thus Dr. Madani is interested in identifying chemicals that inhibit the entry...

Autism Speaks funds $5 million to studies on genetic and environmental risk factors for autism

...to autism, as well as contributing data useful to studies searching for the earliest possible diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This funding, made po...s will help us better understand the onset of ASD and hopefully capture the earliest possible indicators of autism. Both of these studies will also significantl...
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