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Differences in Biological News

Geography and history shape genetic differences in humans

New research indicates that natural selection may shape the human genome much more slowly than previously thought. Other factors -- the movements of humans within and among continents, the expansions and contractions of populations, and the vagaries of genetic chance have heavily influenced the d...

Tiny differences in our genes help shed light on the big picture of human history

By examining very small differences in people's genes, scientists from Cornell University have developed a new tool for identifying big events in human history and pinpointing the origins of specific gene mutations. This research, published in the May issue of the journal GENETICS ( http://www.g...

Genetic differences between yeasts greater than those between humans and chimpanzees

The mapping of the entire yeast genome in 1996 marked the beginning of a revolution in biological and medical research. The human genome was mapped in 2001, and by now the number of characterised species is approaching 1000, most of which are bacteria. The next advance is only a few years away ma...

Study identifies genetic variants giving rise to differences in metabolism

Common genetic polymorphisms induce major differentiations in the metabolic make-up of the human population, according to a paper published November 28 in the open-access journal PLoS Genetics . An international team of researchers, led by Karsten Suhre, has conducted a genome-wide association s...

Study sheds light on genetic differences that cause a childhood eye disease

Medical researchers at the University of Alberta have unlocked part of the mystery underlying a childhood eye disease. New research shows how children with some types of glaucoma end up with missing or extra pieces of DNA. The missing or extra bits of DNA are called copy number variations (CNV...

Researchers note differences between people and animals on calorie restriction

St. Louis, Sept. 24, 2008 Calorie restriction, a diet that is low in calories and high in nutrition, may not be as effective at extending life in people as it is in rodents, according to scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. Previous research had shown that labo...

Defining DNA differences to track and tackle typhoid

For the first time, next-generation DNA sequencing technologies have been turned on typhoid fever - a disease that kills 600,000 people each year. The results will help to improve diagnosis, tracking of disease spread and could help to design new strategies for vaccination. The study sets a new...

Sex differences in the brain's serotonin system

A new thesis from he Swedish medical university Karolinska Institutet shows that the brains serotonin system differs between men and women. The scientists who conducted the study think that they have found one of the reasons why depression and chronic anxiety are more common in women than in men. ...

Tiny genetic differences have huge consequences: McGill researchers

This release is available in French . A study led by McGill University researchers has demonstrated that small differences between individuals at the DNA level can lead to dramatic differences in the way genes produce proteins. These, in turn, are responsible for the vast array of differenc...

Worms take the sniff test to reveal sex differences in brain

Buttery popcorn or fresh green vegetables? Your answer tells a lot about you. Now, scientists say that the way that thousands of tiny worms have answered that question likely reveals a lot about you and your brain, too. In the experiment at the University of Rochester Medical Center, worms t...

Analysis of breast and colon cancer genes finds many areas of differences between tumors

Researchers from University Hospitals (UH) Ireland Cancer Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine are part of a new national study that has analyzed more than 18,000 genes, including 5,000 previously unmapped genes, from breast and colorectal tumors. The study, published onl...

Genetic differences in clover make one type toxic

That clover necklace you make for your child could well be a ring of poison. Thats because some clovers have evolved genes that help the plant produce cyanide to protect itself against little herbivores, such as snails, slugs and voles, that eat clover. Other clover plants that do not make cyani...

Claims of sex-related differences in genetic association studies often not properly validated

A review of previous research suggests that prominent claims of sex differences of gene-disease associations are often insufficiently documented and validated, according to an article in the August 22/29 issue of JAMA. In the human genome era, for many common diseases, published research has of...

St. Jude influenza survey uncovers key differences between bird flu and human flu

Scientists at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital have found key features that distinguish influenza viruses found in birds from those that infect humans. The St. Jude team used a mathematical technique to identify specific amino acid building blocks that are statistically more likely to app...

Risk of vibration-induced vascular injuries linked to vibration frequency differences

Speaking on April 19 at the Experimental Biology 2009 meeting in New Orleans, Dr. Kristine Krajnak, a team leader in the Engineering and Control Technologies Branch of the Health Effects Laboratory Division of NIOSH in Morgantown, West Virginia, describes results from the first study to directly l...

Negligent, attentive mouse mothers show biological differences

MADISON - In mice, child neglect is a product of both nature and nurture, according to a new study. Writing in the journal PLoS ONE on April 9, researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Madison describe a strain of mice that exhibit unusually high rates of maternal neglect, with approximatel...

Individual differences in a clock gene predict decline of performance during sleep deprivation

People are known to differ markedly in their response to sleep deprivation, but the biological underpinnings of these differences have remained difficult to identify. Researchers have now found that a genetic difference in a so-called clock gene, PERIOD3, makes some people particularly sensitive to...

Analysis of rhesus monkey genome uncovers genetic differences with humans, chimps

An international consortium of researchers has published the genome sequence of the rhesus macaque monkey and aligned it with the chimpanzee and human genomes. Published April 13 in a special section of the journal Science, the analysis reveals that the three primate species share about 93 percent ...

Molecular differences between early and advanced melanomas could provide new drug targets

The cell-signaling molecule Akt is a primary trigger that leads malignant melanomas on the skin's surface to begin growing vertically beneath the skin and turn into deadly invasive cancers, scientists have found. Understanding this key molecular difference between radial melanomas that spread on t...

New brain-chemistry differences found in depressed women

A new brain study finds major differences between women with serious depression and healthy women in a brain-chemical system that's crucial to stress and emotions. The study adds further evidence that depression has its roots in specific alterations within the brain -- specifically in the endoge...

Viral genetic differences are possible key to HIV dementia

The study of 18 HIV-positive subjects shows that HIV in the brain and central nervous system is genetically different from HIV that lives in the blood and peripheral tissues. Moreover, serious cognitive impairment among the study subjects was correlated with the presence of a particular mutation...

Albatross study shows regional differences in ocean contamination

As long-lived predators at the top of the marine food chain, albatrosses accumulate toxic contaminants such as PCBs, DDT, and mercury in their bodies. A new study has found dramatic differences in contaminant levels between two closely related albatross species that forage in different areas of the...

Most human-chimp differences due to gene regulation ?not genes

The vast differences between humans and chimpanzees are due more to changes in gene regulation than differences in individual genes themselves, researchers from Yale, the University of Chicago, and the Hall Institute in Parkville, Victoria, Australia, argue in the 9 March 2006 issue of the journal ...

Brain differences could explain why males and females experience pain relief differently

A study conducted by investigators at Georgia State University and the Atlanta-based Center for Behavioral Neuroscience (CBN) reports that anatomical and functional differences in the brain may explain sex differences in the experience of pain and in the effects of certain drugs on pain. The fi...

Study outlines genetic differences between potential pandemic influenza strains

An analysis of H5N1 influenza samples in Southeast Asia shows not only how the two strains that have caused human disease are related but also that they belong to two different, distinct genetic subgroups. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report their findings today ...

Identical twins may have more differences than meet the eye

Identical twins lose some fundamental similarities as they grow older, a new study reports. They may start to look and act less alike. The changes could leave one twin susceptible to diseases like cancer, while the other twin remains healthy. Researchers report in this week's Proceedings of th...

Big differences in duplicated DNA distinguish chimp and human genomes

A study comparing the genomes of both humans and chimpanzees has found that much of the genetic difference between the two species came about in events called segmental duplications, in which segments of genetic code are copied many times in the genome. The study appears as a companion article to t...

Variation in women's X chromosomes may explain differences among individuals, between sexes

The first comprehensive survey of gene activity in the X chromosomes of women has revealed an unexpected level of variation among individuals, according to new work by researchers at the Duke University Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy (IGSP) and Pennsylvania State University. The resul...

Scientists find universal rules for food-web stability

...also reveal that small ecosystems follow other rules than large ecosystems: differences in the strength of predator-prey links increase the stability of small webs...nce of predation on prey density has a stabilizing impact on food webs. differences between small and large systems A further important finding is that food...

AGU journal highlights -- Aug. 6, 2009

...hange took place, not in remote regions. While all models show significant regional effects, these vary across models for several reasons arising from differences in the implementation of the LCC, different land surface models, and different ways of representing the landscape. The researchers conclude that it is...

Climbing to new heights in the forest canopy

...support without firmly attaching to it, a notable difference from the other types of climbers. Although it is possible to observe the superficial differences among the vines in their climbing methods, it is more difficult to observe structural traits of the stems that play an integral role in the plants' cl...

Moving to the US increases cancer risk for Hispanics

...ame umbrella, as a single ethnic group, hiding the differences between each population group. "They are reall...nduct studies like this to better understand these differences and learn what predisposes different population gr...aid they should be more aware of the diversity and differences in cancer prevalence among this population. "D...

Venomous sea snakes play heads or tails with their predators

...e strategy used as instinct when a snake is hunting for food. "It is intriguing that this discovery is observed in this species, as one of the key differences between the Yellow-lipped Sea Krait and other sea snakes is that they spend almost equal time on land and in the sea," said Rasmussen. "They therefore...

Beautiful plumage: Feather color and sex start the species revolution

...neiventris sub-species have the same body shape, but different colored bellies and distinct songs. Birds from these sub-species could mate, but these differences stop them recognizing each other as potential sexual partners. This is evidence of incipient speciation: the beginning of the evolution of new species...

Growing evidence of marijuana smoke's potential dangers

...ells and to DNA. Scientists exposed cultured animal cells and bacteria to condensed smoke samples from both marijuana and tobacco. There were distinct differences in the degree and type of toxicity elicited by marijuana and cigarette smoke. Marijuana smoke caused significantly more damage to cells and DNA than t...

Brain difference in psychopaths identified

... of Psychiatry at King's College London have found differences in the brain which may provide a biological explan...T-MRI) the researchers have highlighted biological differences in the brain which may underpin these types of beh...e results suggest that psychopaths have biological differences in the brain which may help to explain their offen...

Sustainable agriculture at the ESA Annual Meeting

...mpare the long-term sustainability of these two cropping systems, Glover and his colleagues conducted a study on the physical, biological and chemical differences between annual wheat fields and perennial grass fields in Kansas. The fields had each been harvested annually for the past 75 years. In each test, t...

K-State researchers say after-school programs should promote activity, healthy nutrition

...eight students were substantially less active than the students who were not overweight during organized outdoor activities, which might be related to differences in aerobic fitness. Dzewaltowski said future research should include understanding the activity preferences of overweight children. During the base...

Race/ethnicity, family income and education associated with sugar consumption

... eating diets with high added sugars. There are differences within race/ethnicity groups that suggest that int...ducation and family income. There were significant differences across race/ethnicity groups with Asian-Americans ...ndent effects allows for a fuller understanding of differences across race/ethnicity." The NHIS is a cross-sec...

Scientists decoding genomic sequences of H1N1 using isolates from outbreak in Argentina

...will be comparing sequences of viruses associated with the current outbreak in Argentina with those found in other locations to determine if there are differences that may be linked to higher mortality rates or provide insights into virus evolution. The Mailman School of Public Health researchers, led by Gust...
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