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Brain in Biological News

Abnormal brain circuits may prevent movement disorder

MANHASSET, NY -- Most people who carry a genetic mutation for a movement disorder called dystonia will never develop symptoms, a phenomenon that has puzzled scientists since the first genetic mutation was identified in the 1990's. Now, scientists at The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research hav...

Holding breath for several minutes elevates marker for brain damage

BETHESDA, Md. (August 4, 2009) Divers who held their breath for several minutes had elevated levels of a protein that can signal brain damage, according to a new study from the Journal of Applied Physiology . However, the appearance of the protein, S100B, was transient and leaves open the questi...

A crystal ball for brain cancer?

UCLA researchers have uncovered a new way to scan brain tumors and predict which ones will be shrunk by the drug Avastin -- before the patient ever starts treatment. By linking high water movement in tumors to positive drug response, the UCLA team predicted with 70 percent accuracy which patients...

Experimental treatment halts hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in newborns

CINCINNATI Inhibiting an enzyme in the brains of newborns suffering from oxygen and blood flow deprivation stops a type of brain damage that is a leading cause of cerebral palsy, mental retardation and death, according to researchers at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. Reporting ...

Our brain looks at eyes first to identify a face

A study by the University of Barcelona (UB) has analysed which facial features our brain examines to identify faces. Our brain adapts in order to obtain the maximum amount of information possible from each face and according to the study the key data for identification come from, in the first plac...

Hush little baby... Linking genes, brain and behavior in children

It comes as no surprise that some babies are more difficult to soothe than others but frustrated parents may be relieved to know that this is not necessarily an indication of their parenting skills. According to a new report in Psychological Science , a journal of the Association for Psychologica...

Alzheimer's disease drug treats traumatic brain injury, report GUMC researchers

Vienna, Austria The destructive cellular pathways activated in Alzheimer's disease are also triggered following traumatic brain injury, say researchers from Georgetown University Medical Center (GUMC). They say this finding suggests that novel therapy might successfully target both conditions. ...

When it comes to brain damage, blankets take the place of drugs

Have you ever covered yourself with a blanket to stave off the shivers? A new study shows that a blanket can also help alleviate shivering in patients who have been cooled to prevent brain damage. Patients with brain injuries or dangerously high fevers are often cooled to reduce their core body...

Dogs, humans, put heads together to find cure for brain cancer

Pinpointing the genes involved in human brain cancer can be like looking for a needle in a haystack, and sometimes the needle you find may not be the right one. By comparing human and canine genomes, researchers at North Carolina State University have discovered that a gene commonly believed to be...

A young brain for an old bee

We are all familiar with the fact that cognitive function declines as we get older. Moreover, recent studies have shown that the specific kind of daily activities we engage in during the course of our lives appears to influence the extent of this decline. A team of researchers from Technische Univ...

Reading the brain without poking it

SALT LAKE CITY, June 29, 2009 Experimental devices that read brain signals have helped paralyzed people use computers and may let amputees control bionic limbs. But existing devices use tiny electrodes that poke into the brain. Now, a University of Utah study shows that brain signals co...

Singapore nanotechnology combats fatal brain infections

Doctors may get a new arsenal for meningitis treatment and the war on drug-resistant bacteria and fungal infections with novel peptide nanoparticles developed by scientists at the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN) of Singapore and reported in Nature Nanotechnology . The sta...

Gene predicts how brain responds to fatigue, human study shows

New imaging research in the June 24 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience helps explain why sleep deprivation affects some people more than others. After staying awake all night, those who are genetically vulnerable to sleep loss showed reduced brain activity, while those who are genetically resi...

Lack of happiness hormone serotonin in the brain causes impaired maternal behavior in mice

A lack of serotonin, commonly known as the "happiness hormone", in the brain slows the growth of mice after birth and is responsible for impaired maternal behavior later in life. This was the result of research conducted by Dr. Natalia Alenina, Dana Kikic, and Professor Michael Bader of the Max De...

Tumor suppressor gene in flies may provide insights for human brain tumors

SINGAPORE and DURHAM, N.C. In the fruit fly's developing brain, stem cells called neuroblasts normally divide to create one self-renewing neuroblast and one cell that has a different fate. But neuroblast growth can sometimes spin out of control and become a brain tumor. Researchers at Duke-NU...

Potential for non-invasive brain tumor treatment

DURHAM, N.C. -- Duke University engineers have taken a first step toward a minimally invasive treatment of brain tumors by combining chemotherapy with heat administered from the end of a catheter. The proof-of-concept study demonstrated that it should be technically possible to treat brain tum...

From the glass to the brain in 6 minutes

Just one drink can quickly go to your head. Researchers in Heidelberg tested this well-known adage. Only six minutes after consuming an amount of alcohol equivalent to three glasses of beer or two glasses of wine, leading to a blood alcohol level of 0.05 to 0.06 percent, changes have already taken...

Protein regulates movement of mitochondria in brain cells

Scientists have identified a protein in the brain that plays a key role in the function of mitochondria the part of the cell that supplies energy, supports cellular activity, and potentially wards off threats from disease. The discovery, which was reported today in the Journal of Cell Biology ,...

Computer model predicts brain tumor growth and evolution

PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] Researchers from Brown University and other institutions have developed a computational computer model of how brain tumors grow and evolve. The model is the product mathematical formulas based on the first principals of physics, such as conservation of mass,...

Identification of a key molecular pathway required for brain neural circuit formation

Montral, May 15, 2009 The research group of Dr. Frdric Charron, a researcher at the Institut de recherches cliniques de Montral (IRCM), has made a discovery which could help treat spinal cord injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. This new finding has been published in the current issue of the ...

Your brain on -- and off -- caffeine

Ever miss your daily cup of coffee and subsequently get a pounding headache? According to reports from consumers of coffee and other caffeinated products, caffeine withdrawal is often characterized by a headache, fatigue, feeling less alert, less energetic and experiencing difficulty concentrating...

Early brain activity sheds new light on the neural basis of reading

Most people are expert readers, but it is something of an enigma that our brain can achieve expertise in such a recent cultural invention, which lies at the interface between vision and language. Given that the first alphabetic scripts are thought to have been invented only around four to five tho...

Translating the conversation between the brain and blood vessels

BETHESDA, Md. (April 21, 2009) When Francois Abboud began his work at the University of Iowa in 1960, little was known about the constant physiological chatter between the brain and the blood vessels. His research since has helped unravel how this chatter adjusts blood pressure and blood flow to ...

Researchers use brain interface to post to Twitter

MADISON In early April, Adam Wilson posted a status update on the social networking Web site Twitter just by thinking about it. Just 23 characters long, his message, "using EEG to send tweet," demonstrates a natural, manageable way in which "locked-in" patients can couple brain-computer inter...

TGen researchers discover possible way to block the spread of deadly brain tumors

PHOENIX, Ariz. April 17, 2009 Researchers at the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) may have found a way to stop the often-rapid spread of deadly brain tumors. A gene with the playful-sounding name NHERF-1 may be a serious target for drugs that could prevent malignant tumors fro...

Prenatal meth exposure linked to abnormal brain development

ST. PAUL, Minn. A first of its kind study examining the effects of methamphetamine use during pregnancy has found the drug appears to cause abnormal brain development in children. The research is published in the April 15, 2009, online issue of Neurology , the medical journal of the American Aca...

'First aid' for brain cells comes from blood

In acute ischemic stroke, the blood supply to the brain is restricted. Initially, brain cells die from lack of oxygen. In addition, ischemia activates harmful inflammatory processes in the affected area of the brain. For the first time, scientists at the Neurology Clinic at Heidelberg University H...

UNC study: Scientists identify chemical compound that may stop deadly brain tumors

CHAPEL HILL Researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine have identified a compound that could be modified to treat one of the most deadly types of cancer, and discovered how a particular gene mutation contributes to tumor growth. The findings and potential...

Fluorescent cancer cells to guide brain surgeons

Gliomas are malignant brain tumors that arise from glial (supporting) cells of the brain. Gliomas are often resistant to chemotherapy. These tumors grow fine extensions that infiltrate normal brain tissue and, in addition, individual tumor cells can form satellites in surrounding tissue. Therefore...

University of Kansas graduate student researcher takes aim at deadly brain tumors

LAWRENCE, Kansas Natalie Ciaccio, a fourth-year graduate student researcher in the Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry at the University of Kansas, is investigating what might be an ideal target for anti-cancer drug therapy, and she is focusing her work on brain tumors specifically. The Na...

West Nile virus studies show how star-shaped brain cells cope with infection

A new study published as the cover article for the April 2009 issue of The FASEB Journal ( http://www.fasebj.org ) promises to give physicians new ways to reduce deadly responses to viral infections of the brain and spinal cord. In the report, scientists from Columbia University, NY, detail for...

Brain building: Study shows brain growth tied to cell division in mouse embryos

How your brain grows might come down to how your cells divide. In the April 6 issue of the Journal of Cell Biology ( JCB ), Lake and Sokol report that mouse protein Vangl2 controls the asymmetrical cell division and developmental fate of progenitor neurons. Vangl2 (aka Strabismus in flies) is...

To fight drug addiction, UB researchers target the brain with nanoparticles

BUFFALO, N.Y. -- A precise, new nanotechnology treatment for drug addiction may be on the horizon as the result of research conducted at the University at Buffalo. Scientists in UB's Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics and UB's Department of Medicine have developed a stable nanoparti...

Researchers discover gene mutations that cause childhood brain cancer

March 8, 2009 TORONTO Researchers funded by the Canadian Cancer Society have discovered eight similar genes that, when mutated, appear to be responsible for medulloblastoma the most common of childhood brain cancers. The findings are published today in the online edition of the journal Nature G...

New and unexpected mechanism identified how the brain responds to stress

Calgary, AB -- Chronic stress takes a physical and emotional toll on our bodies and scientists are working on piecing together a medical puzzle to understand how we respond to stress at the cellular level in the brain. Being able to quickly and successfully respond to stress is essential for surv...

Penn research team tests bedside monitoring of brain blood flow and metabolism in stroke victims

PHILADELPHIA A University of Pennsylvania team has completed the first successful demonstration of a noninvasive optical device to monitor cerebral blood flow in patients with acute stroke, a leading cause of disability and death. The ultimate goal of this research is to improve the management...

Researchers capture wave of brain activity linked to anticipation

WASHINGTON, D.C. Neuroscientists at Georgetown University Medical Center have, for the first time, shown what brain activity looks like when someone anticipates an action or sensory input which soon follows. In the February 25 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience , they say this neural clairv...

Case Western Reserve researchers develop 'wireless' activation of brain circuits

Traditionally, stimulating nerves or brain tissue involves cumbersome wiring and a sharp metal electrode. But a team of researchers at Case Western Reserve University is going "wireless." And it's a unique collaboration between chemists and neuroscientists that led to the discovery of a remarka...

Singapore research organisations team up to advance drug discovery using brain tumor stem cells

Lilly Singapore Centre for Drug Discovery (LSCDD), Singapore's National Neuroscience Institute (NNI), and the Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences (SICS), have teamed up to advance drug discovery using adult brain tumour stem cells. NNI is one of the institutions of SingHealth, the larges...

Researchers shed new light on connection between brain and loneliness

Social isolation affects how people behave as well as how their brains operate, a study at the University of Chicago shows. The research, presented Sunday at a symposium, "Social Emotion and the Brain," at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, is the firs...
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