Caltech scientists show why anti-HIV antibodies are ineffective at blocking infection
PASADENA, Calif.--Some 25 years after the AIDS epidemic spawned a worldwide search for an effective vaccine against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), progress in the field seems to have effectively become stalled. The reason? According to new findings from a team of researchers from the Cali...
U-M 'ballast-free ship' could cut costs while blocking aquatic invaders
ANN ARBOR, Mich.---University of Michigan researchers are investigating a radical new design for cargo ships that would eliminate ballast tanks, the water-filled compartments that enable non-native creatures to sneak into the Great Lakes from overseas.
At least 185 non-native aquatic species ha...
Study finds blocking angiogenesis signaling from inside cell may lead to serious health problems
Angiogenesis inhibitors that block a tumors development of an independent blood supply have been touted as effective cancer fighters that result in fewer side effects than traditional chemotherapy. However, a new study by researchers at UCLAs Jonsson Cancer Center showed that one method of blockin...
New compound prevents alcoholic behavior, relapse in animals by blocking stress response
A study of alcohol-dependent animals shows that a newly discovered compound that blocks chemical signals active during the brain’s response to stress effectively stops excessive drinking and prevents relapse.
The new, synthetic compound, known as MTIP, also muted the anxiety that typically devel...
Signal protein shows promise for blocking tumor promoters in skin cells
A protein with the ironic name "Srcasm" can counteract the effects of tumor-promoting molecules in skin cells, according to new research by investigators at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. Using animal models, the researchers discovered that Srcasm acts like a brake in epithelial...
Selectively blocking inflammatory signals may protect mice from MS
A new way to preserve the cells that surround and protect nerves could lead to new treatments for demyelinating diseases such a multiple sclerosis, a research team reports in the May 10, 2006, issue of the Journal of Neuroscience.
The approach grew out of a novel explanation, quickly gaining foll...
UCSD study clarifies insulin's role in blocking release of energy in patients with type II diabetes
Chronically high levels of insulin, as is found in many people with obesity and Type II diabetes, may block specific hormones that trigger energy release into the body, according to researchers at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine. Their findings, which may point to ...
The hepatitis healing power of blueberry leaves
... A chemical found in blueberry leaves has shown a strong effect in blocking
the replication of the Hepatitis C virus, opening up a new avenue for treating chronic HCV infections, which affect 200 million people worldwide and c...
NIH stimulus funding supports Emory biomedical scientists
...hat we can build on in future years after this funding is no longer available."
Examples of stimulus-funded projects at Emory thus far include:
blood vessel growth in tumors:
The creation of new blood vessels can be good a response to exercise or injury or bad, enabling the growth of a tumor...
Antibody targeting of glioblastoma shows promise in preclinical tests, say Lombardi researchers
... They collaborated with ESBAtech in Switzerland who created a small single-chain antibody fragment in yeast that would itself bind to the sweet spot, blocking
ALK's interaction with PTN. In the present study, the researchers successfully tested the antibody in human glioblastoma cells, and also showed that i...
UCSF researchers identify new drug target for Kaposi's sarcoma
... halves to bind together to be activated, according to the paper.
The HIV protease was successfully targeted for drug development in the 1980s, by blocking
the active site on the surface of the dimer, but the herpes virus protease dimer has consistently eluded efforts to disrupt it at its active site, the...
Experimental treatment halts hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in newborns
...ding to researchers at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center.
Reporting their results in the Journal of Neuroscience , the scientists show blocking
the brain enzyme, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), prevents progressive brain damage triggered by the lack of oxygen and blood supply. The exp...
Scientists link immune system's natural killer cells to infant liver disease
...searchers at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center also report that blocking
a gene that helps NK cells attack bile duct tissues lessens damage and may ...uld include pre-clinical trials of biologics to halt disease progression by blocking
the Nkg2d receptor and depleting NK cells at the time biliary atresia is di...
UCLA researchers discover new molecular pathway for targeting cancer, disease
...n stimulated in an unregulated manner, however, the Hh pathway can also cause cancers of the brain, lung, blood, prostate, skin and other tissues.
such unregulated stimulation of the Hh pathway had previously been shown in animal studies to prevent cancers, according to the researchers. How LXR w...
Avoiding hysterectomy: Major interventional radiology E-collection info available
...pain and less recovery time than traditional surgery. Interventional radiologists use expertise in imaging to deliver treatment directly to a fibroid, blocking
the flow of blood to the tumor and causing it to shrink. "With these modern treatments, hopefully the trend to offer traditional surgery first will be...
MicroRNAs help control HIV life cycle
Rana's team looked at miR29 expression levels in infected and uninfected cells and found that miR29 expression was enhanced by HIV-1 infection. blocking
the activity of miR29 with interfering RNA resulted in increased replication and infectivity of the virus. The scientists tested the association of mi...
Enzyme doesn't act alone in atrial fibrillation
..., but only one or the other, then you don't develop the arrhythmia."
Since calmodulin kinase II is important to many other functions in the heart, blocking
it all together is not a realistic treatment. Instead, they were able to make a change to one amino acid in the genetic code and stop the specific cal...
The downside of microtubule stability
... the faulty version of dynamin 2
were abnormally stable, as measured by how many acetyl groups were attached to them. The researchers also found that blocking
normal dynamin 2 with RNAi had the same effect as the mutation, confirming that one of dynamin 2's functions is to promote microtubule turnover.
Researchers engineer metabolic pathway in mice to prevent diet-induced obesity
...ignal is released that tells the body it is too full and that it needs to stop using fat and begin making it. Malonyl-CoA is high after eating a meal, blocking
fatty acid metabolism. The new pathway, however, allowed for fat degradation even when the body was full.
Ultimately, the research team found th...
Stem cell protein offers a new cancer target
...r (a childhood kidney cancer). They believe that overall, LIN28 and a related protein, LIN28B, may be involved in some 15 percent of human cancers. By blocking
or suppressing LIN28, it might be possible to revive the let-7 family's natural tumor-suppressing action.
"Linking this protein to advanced cancer ...
American Chemical Society's weekly PressPac -- May 27, 2009
...ew medications. Scientists believe one may emerge from the fascinating discovery that a protein called TGF-beta 1 triggers liver inflammation and that blocking
the protein may help.
The researchers designed 10 chemically synthesized substances, termed siRNAs, with the ability to block or "silence" the TGF...
One size does not fit all
...tion but also in oligodendrocyte number as a result of simvastatin treatment. The findings also suggest that simvastatin inhibits CNS remyelination by blocking
oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation or maturation into myelinating oligodendrocytes."
This study underscores the necessity of monitorin...
Glutamine supplements show promise in treating stomach ulcers
...no acid stimulated ammonia detoxification in the stomach as it does in the liver so that the effective concentration of ammonia was reduced, thereby blocking
She and her coauthors, therefore, hypothesized that a similar mechanism might be at work in the intact stomach infected with H. pylo...
Princeton team's analysis of flu virus could lead to better vaccines
...se, producing antibodies custom-designed to attach themselves to the virus, blocking
it from action and effectively neutralizing its harmful effects on the body...pecific virus are often equally adept at attaching themselves to the virus, blocking
the more effective antibodies from doing their job. The scientists suggest ...
New evidence of how high glucose damages blood vessels could lead to new treatments
...hat occur in diabetes damage blood vessels may lead to novel strategies for blocking
the destruction, Medical College of Georgia researchers say.
They found ... it looks very promising," Dr. Tostes adds.
Future studies will include blocking
the pathway for adding O-GlcNAc in hypertensive animals to study the impact...
Wind, salt and water are leading indicators of land degradation in Abu Dhabi
...as. Wind is the main cause of irreversible land degradation in the arid environment of Abu Dhabi. Wind erosion indicators are formation of fall dunes, blocking
of highways, dust storms, nebkha features, reduction of waterways capacity due to deposition of sand, exposure of hardpans at the surface, and gravel ...
Drug prevents seizure progression in model of epilepsy
In the current study, Barth tested this theory by blocking
the ion channels using a BK-channel
antagonist called paxilline. Using an ...nd Brett Benedetti discovered that the compound was effective at completely blocking
"The drug is orally available, and works in the lo...
Brain protein central to both Parkinson's, drug addiction identified
...chemical serotonin to stay available in the brain longer than it otherwise would. Since one of oct3's functions is to remove serotonin from the brain, blocking
it may offer a new avenue to treat depression.
The chemicals that the team used to block oct3 in mice would be toxic in people, and there is no dru...
A longer lasting tumor blocker
...mes. Now, Yoshiaki Kubota and colleagues find that blocking
a different molecule, called M-CSF, suppressed tum...rs was the type of vessel growth that was blocked. blocking
VEGF prevented dangerous vessels from growing such...ng, such as those that help injured tissues heal. blocking
M-CSF, on the other hand, only impeded bad vessel ...
Peregrine's PS-targeting antibodies highlighted in AACR Annual Meeting studies
... viruses often possess the ability to undermine this maturation, thereby suppressing the immune response. The results presented today suggest that by blocking
exposed PS, anti-PS antibodies have the potential to promote dendritic cell maturation in the body and thereby stimulate a more effective immune respo...
New drug shows promise in treating drug-resistant prostate cancer
Because of this backlash effect, many scientists have questioned whether blocking
the androgen receptor is a wise course of action. Sawyers and his colleagues, however, believe that blocking
the receptor is critical to successful treatment. They set out to design a ...
New medications show promise in treating drug-resistant prostate cancer
Because of this backlash effect, many scientists have questioned whether blocking
the androgen receptor is a wise course of action. But Sawyers and his colleagues believe that blocking
the receptor is critical to successful treatment. So they set out to design...
Locking parasites in host cell could be new way to fight malaria
...e team infected human red blood cells, using pharmacological and biochemical evidence to discover that parasites activate the host protease calpain-1. blocking
or removing calpain-1, a calcium regulated protease, left parasites trapped inside the host cell. By adding calpain-1 back into the cell, parasites we...
A miR boost enables acute leukemia cells to mature
...d small chemical units called methyl groups to genes. The addition of the units locks genes down tight and takes them out of action.
the enzymes, the miR removes the methyl groups from genes, a process called demethylation, which then reactivates them.
The study is re...
MDC researchers prevent virus induced myocarditis
...Chen, and Professor Michael Gotthardt of the Max Delbrck Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) Berlin-Buch, Germany, have now abolished the infection by blocking
the receptor which is required for virus entry. "We did not detect a single cardiomyocyte that was infected by the virus. Inflammation of the heart mu...
Gene linked to lupus might explain gender difference in disease risk
...y also have therapeutic implications, said Dr. Chandra Mohan, professor of internal medicine and senior author of the study. "Our work also shows that blocking
IRAK1 action shuts down lupus in an animal model. Though many genes may be involved in lupus, we only have very limited information on them," he said....
Skin cancer study uncovers new tumor suppressor gene
... seek to restore or increase their action.
The new study may help to explain the disappointing performance of drugs designed to treat cancer by blocking
MMP enzymes. Because members of the MMP gene family were thought to be oncogenes and many tumors express high levels of MMP enzymes, researchers have ...
Time (and PPAR-beta/delta) heals all wounds
...asts were stimulated to produce these growth factors by keratinocyte-released cytokine IL-1 - underscoring the reciprocity between the two cell types. blocking
either the IL-1 signal or any of the growth factors released by the fibroblasts returned the OTCs to normal.
So why do fibroblasts lacking PPAR^...
Covering the bases: Quantum effect may hold promise for low-cost DNA sequencing, sensor applications
...of matter acting over tiny distances at the atomic or subatomic scale. In a classical electric circuit, a gate is either open or closed, permitting or blocking
the flow of current. But, as Lindsay explains, "when you start to get two electrodes so close to one another that they are within a few atomic diamete...
New simulation shows consequences of a world without Earth's natural sunscreen
...ontreal Protocol work? What kind of world was avoided by phasing out ozone-depleting substances?"
Ozone is Earth's natural sunscreen, absorbing and blocking
most of the incoming UV radiation from the sun and protecting life from DNA-damaging radiation. The gas is naturally created and replenished by a phot...