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Lung airway cells activate vitamin D and increase immune response

Vitamin D is essential to good health but needs to be activated to function properly in the human body. Until recently, this activation was thought to happen primarily in the kidneys, but a new University of Iowa study finds that the activation step can also occur in lung airway cells. The stud...

A study reveals how cells communicate to activate the cell division machinery

This release is available in Spanish . A study performed by researchers at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona) on the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, unveils how distinct signaling pathways operate between neighboring cells in order to activate the cell proliferatio...

UT Southwestern researchers develop screening test for cells that activate immune system

UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers are the first to create a large-scale, cell-based screening method that identifies which compounds activate immune-response cells that hold promise for future cancer-fighting vaccines. The new screening technique can scan thousands and even millions of c...

Protein Packages Found To Activate Genes; May Be What Regulates Development And Disease

It's all in the packaging. How nature wraps and tags genes determines if and when they become active, according to researchers from Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.). They did the largest, most detailed study to date of the protein structure that surrounds the human gen...

Scientists open doors to diagnosis of emphysema

...the alveoli, the tiny air-sacs of the lungs that are crucial for respiration and uptake of oxygen from the air. Cigarette smoke and other irritants activate immune cells, like macrophages, in the lungs to destroy the foreign material, and chronic exposure causes inflammation. MMP12 is an enzyme secreted by...

UCSF researchers identify new drug target for Kaposi's sarcoma

...tml . Most current antiviral drugs target the active sites of viral proteins, where enzymes and receptors work in a lock-and-key approach to either activate or deactivate that particular protein, the researchers explained. Traditionally, drug development has focused on inhibiting that lock-and-key action t...

Airway cells use 'tasting' mechanism to detect and clear harmful substances

...chanism that does not require nerves," said Alok Shah, a UI graduate student and co-first author of the study. "In the airways, bitter substances both activate the receptors and elicit a response -- the increased beating of the cilia -- designed to eliminate the offending material." Shah and co-first autho...

UCLA researchers discover new molecular pathway for targeting cancer, disease

...ollaborator in this follow-up research. In addition, the team has started a medicinal chemistry program to design and test small molecules that activate the LXR pathway while avoiding the adverse effects that may be caused when LXR is activated in tissues such as the liver. ...

New trigger for chronic inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis discovered

...ction and protect the body from disease. Today's findings show that a signal molecule called tenascin-C can trigger the same molecular switch and also activate the immune system. High levels of tenascin-C present in joints therefore may cause the activated immune system to attack the joint leading to the pers...

Trio of signals converge to induce liver and pancreas cell development in the embryo

...e the gene activation process. The Science paper addresses how chemical signals from neighboring cells in the embryo tell early progenitor cells to activate genes encoding the regulatory proteins. The regulatory proteins, in turn, guide the cells to become a liver cell or a pancreas cell. "In the current s...

Pushmi-pullyu of B-cell development discovered

...lecule from becoming irretrievably tangled. When wrapped tightly around these spools, individual genes are inaccessible to the molecules that bind and activate them. Second, many of the genes have small methyl groups, a carbon and three hydrogen atoms (CH3), on their DNA in specific places, which also prevent...

Energy-saving method checks refrigerant level in air conditioners

...ps, the refrigerant undergoes dramatic temperature changes. Automotive air conditioning units equipped with the new refrigerant-charge system could activate a warning light on a car's dashboard. Technicians servicing home air conditioners might simply plug a personal digital assistant into the unit to read...

Fate in fly sensory organ precursor cells could explain human immune disorder

... of Delta is compromised in Arp3 mutants, affecting the ability of Delta to activate Notch. This is an important part of their work. "Normally, Delta is pr...is complicated trafficking of Delta does not occur, the ability of Delta to activate Notch is compromised. "It is likely that whatever we have discovered her...

The battle for CRTC2: How obesity increases the risk for diabetes

...hen postdoctoral researcher and first author Yiguo Wang, Ph.D., mimicked the conditions of ER stress in mice, CRTC2 moved to the nucleus but failed to activate gluconeogenesis. Instead, it switched on genes important for combating stress and returning cells to health. On closer inspection, Wang found that in ...

Tracking down the causes of multiple sclerosis

...p of white blood cells known as T cells. These immune-system cells provide a kind of 'immediate response' to pathogens - they recognise the pathogens, activate the immune response and thus trigger the destruction of the harmful cells. In addition to T cells, the immune system also has B cells. These also reac...

Dioxins in food chain linked to breastfeeding ills

...ceptor, or AhR. When pollutants enter the body they bind to AhR, which then turns on certain genes responsible for detoxification. By using dioxin to activate AhR, researchers have learned that dioxin impairs the ability to fight off infection. The link between dioxin and the immune system is still being stu...

Muscle atrophy through thick but not thin

... only some muscle components, whereas others fall victim to other ubiquitin ligases and autophagy. Inhibitors that work upstream to block signals that activate ubiquitin ligases and initiate autophagy are a better bet. ...

Jefferson receives $1.7 million grant to study stem cells in intervertebral discs of the spine

...f activities of stem cells including proliferation, self-renewal and differentiation. Our goal is to harness the body's own regenerative potential and activate endogenous cells." Drs. Risbud and Shapiro are collaborating with Drs. Todd Albert and D. Greg Anderson, their clinical colleagues at the Rothman...

Enzyme involved in inflammatory bowel disease discovered at Penn State College of Medicine

...level in the blood of mice lacking meprin was much higher than the level in wild-type mice. The Penn State team also discovered that meprin is able to activate an inflammatory serum factor produced by white blood cells, and this factor is elevated in both the mouse model of IBD and in humans with active IBD. ...

Activated stem cells in damaged lungs could be first step toward cancer

...g cancer, according to a team of American and British researchers. "There are chemically resistant, local-tissue stem cells in the lung that only activate after severe injury," said Barry R. Stripp, Ph.D., professor of medicine and cell biology at Duke University Medical Center. "Cigarette smoke contains...

The evolution of gene regulation

...ans most of their genes only become active when they are needed, as is the case in higher organisms. In the simplest case, a transcription factor will activate the gene in question at the right time. Genes that are regulated in a somewhat more complex manner, on the other hand, are kept inactive by a represso...

Cocaine: Perceived as a reward by the brain?

... underwent blood tests before and after taking the drug, and dopamine release in the brain was measured using PET scans. "The ability of cocaine to activate dopamine release varies markedly from person to person. Our study suggests that this is related to how much of the drug the person consumed in the pas...

New tool isolates RNA within specific cells

...entists needing to physically separate cell types, they now can inject a chemically modified gene from the one-celled organism Toxoplasma gondii and activate it in only one cell type within a tissue. Only newly generated RNA in this cell type is then tagged and isolated. "By analyzing RNA from different...

UT nanomedicine project to be tested in space

...SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon spacecraft. When sensors inside the box determine that near weightlessness has been achieved, the experiment will activate itself and begin a series of tests designed to learn more about the diffusion of micro nanoparticles through tiny microchannels measured in millionths...

OHSU researchers study the idling brain

...y as it occurs in study subjects. By studying a large group of subjects, the researchers were able to identify regions of the brain that spontaneously activate together while the subjects were at rest. These regions operate in tandem with one another, and group into regional networks. "After observing a la...

Scientists learn why the flu may turn deadly

...e response, in the blood plasma. Although they found elevated levels of cytokines, they also found a decreased response of toll-like receptors, which activate immune cell responses as a result of invading microbes. This suggests that the diminished response of these receptors may be responsible for the para...

Gladstone scientists identify key factors in heart cell creation

...Benoit Bruneau, Ph.D., found that a combination of three genes could do the trick. This is the first time any combination of factors has been found to activate cardiac differentiation in mammalian cells or tissues. "The heart has very little regenerative capacity after it has been damaged," said Dr. Brune...

Sequencing the cow's genetic code -- a new agricultural era dawns

...ies in hominoids. For example, humans have lost a large number of genes which encode the receptors that recognize molecules surrounding a cell and activate the necessary answers." The research conducted by the teams of Professor Alexandre Reymond at UNIL and Professors Stylianos E. Antonarakis and Evge...

Microparticle immune response modifier shows broad effects against recurrent or metastatic cancer

...e of malignant diseases, MIS416 acts on multiple pathways simultaneously to activate a broad range of innate immune cell types that are central to the developme...ists. Signaling pathways activated by these ligands act synergistically to activate a broad range of innate immune cell subsets that are central to the develop...

ABBTECH Staffing Services Certified by GSA as an HSPD-12 Managed Service Provider

... centers nationwide, verify identity of applicants, collect, safeguard, and securely transmit personal and biometric identification of applicants, and activate and distribute PIV cards to applicants in accordance with Government regulations. ABBTECH has and is currently providing such staffing support for PIV...

Our brains make their own marijuana: We're all pot heads deep inside

...-like drugs for managing pain, stimulating appetite, and preventing marijuana abuse. "Ideally, this development will lead to drugs that bind to and activate the THC receptor, but are devoid of the side effects that limit the usefulness of marijuana," said Lakshmi A. Devi of the Department of Pharmacology a...

HIV dearms protective protein in cells

...al Cell Host & Microbe in March 2009. Newly formed viruses are retained at the cell surface In addition to the immune system, the body can activate other protective mechanisms to fight or stop virus infections the infected cells themselves dispose of several proteins that inhibit various steps of...

ABBTECH Staffing Services Certified by GSA as an HSPD-12 Managed Service Provider

... centers nationwide, verify identity of applicants, collect, safeguard, and securely transmit personal and biometric identification of applicants, and activate and distribute PIV cards to applicants in accordance with Government regulations. ABBTECH has and is currently providing such staffing support for PIV...

Locking parasites in host cell could be new way to fight malaria

...avior of P. falciparum parasites, the team infected human red blood cells, using pharmacological and biochemical evidence to discover that parasites activate the host protease calpain-1. Blocking or removing calpain-1, a calcium regulated protease, left parasites trapped inside the host cell. By adding calp...

Distinguishing single cells with nothing but light

...tistical data from large cell populations. Until now scientists have not had a non-invasive way to see how human cells, like T cells or cancer cells, activate individually and evolve over time. As reported today in a special biomedical issue of Applied Optics , this is the first time clear differences be...

Team identifies a molecular switch linking infectious disease and depression

...e researchers knew that infection causes immune cells to produce cytokines, signaling proteins that help the body fight infection. These proteins also activate IDO in the body and brain. IDO degrades the amino acid tryptophan, producing metabolites that affect animal and human behavior. Previous studies have ...

NIST-Cornell team builds world's first nanofluidic device with complex 3-D surfaces

...ined by templates, or photomasks, that permit different amounts of light to activate a photosensitive chemical, or photoresist, sitting atop the chip material, ...te. Grayscale photolithography, on the other hand, uses "shades of gray" to activate and sculpt the photoresist in three dimensions. In other words, light is tr...

Bad mix of bacterial remnants and genetics leads to arthritis

... cranial neuropathy (a disorder affecting nerves that control sight, eye movement, hearing, and taste). "Now that we know that bacterial products can activate this NOD2 pathway and that this signal contributes to arthritis," said John Wherry, Ph.D., Deputy Editor of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology , "the ...

As good as it gets: Octogenarian muscles don't get stronger with exercise

... unrelated to improvement in muscle strength. Instead, the results were probably due to improvements in how efficiently the nervous system was able to activate and synchronize the muscles. In an earlier study, the researchers found that the muscles of octogenarian men also failed to gain strength with the ...

Eye cells believed to be retinal stem cells are misidentified

...cells. The researchers also found that simply culturing the sphere-forming cells in the same growth medium as is used for stem cells caused them to activate genes characteristic of stem cells, yet remain adult ciliary epithelial cells. Dyer said that a particularly promising alternative is the possibili...
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