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Abnormal in Biological News

Prenatal meth exposure linked to abnormal brain development

ST. PAUL, Minn. A first of its kind study examining the effects of methamphetamine use during pregnancy has found the drug appears to cause abnormal brain development in children. The research is published in the April 15, 2009, online issue of Neurology , the medical journal of the American Aca...

Grant supports study of abnormal ring-shaped chromosomes

When chromosomes, which are normally bar-shaped, instead bend into a ring before birth, they may disrupt normal development and cause a multitude of problems. Genetics experts at The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia will be investigating one such disorder, supported by a $126,000 grant from the ...

Whole-genome study at Johns Hopkins reveals a new gene associated with abnormal heart rhythm

Using a new genomic strategy that has the power to survey the entire human genome and identify genes with common variants that contribute to complex diseases, researchers at Johns Hopkins, together with scientists from Munich, Germany, and the Framingham Heart Study, U.S.A., have identified a gene ...

Jefferson scientists identify gene defect leading to abnormal skin development and cancer

For the rats of Hamelin, it was the Pied Piper's tune. For the destructive sea lamprey of the Great Lakes, it's a chemical attractant, or pheromone, released by lamprey larvae living in streambeds. Following the pheromone trail, adults are drawn to streams favorable for spawning. Researchers have l...

Abnormal brain circuits may prevent movement disorder

... uncontrolled movements, particularly twisting and abnormal postures. Studies have shown that muscles contract...le movements. While their brains show the same abnormal network, only approximately 30% of people who carr...Eidelberg explained, "the flow is shut off and the abnormal activity stops." ...

Pitt researchers find promising candidate protein for cancer prevention vaccines

...ld produce autoimmunity and create new problems," Dr. Finn said. "But now that we know that perhaps 20 to 30 percent of people already recognize it as abnormal when made in excess, we can be more confident about the safety of a vaccine strategy to immunize high-risk groups against it." She is working with ...

La Jolla Institute discovers novel tumor suppressor

... STAT5 goes into a state of constant activation, causing the development of abnormal myeloid cells," said Dr. Kawakami. The abnormal cells, which are essentially tumor cells, become overactive and produce too...

UC San Diego engineer provides insights to decades-old DNA squabble

... example, he said, lots of diseases including cancer are directly linked to abnormal regulation of chromatin. The structure of chromatin has been a subject ...ghts into biology," he added. "When we talk about cancer and its link to abnormal gene regulation, we have to ask the question why are these genes misfiring?...

Scientists track impact of DNA damage in the developing brain

...53 pathway leading to cell cycle arrest rather than apoptosis. In the hippocampus, which plays a role in memory and emotion, investigators reported abnormal gene expression and neuronal function. Some neurons were eventually replaced by scar tissue in a process known as gliosis. Overall changes in the hipp...

Sticky protein helps reinforce fragile muscle membranes

...cine and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. "The findings may also have clinical implications for muscular dystrophies that are caused by abnormal dystroglycan." These congenital muscular dystrophies include Fukuyama Congenital Muscular Dystrophy, Walker-Warburg Syndrome and Muscle-Eye-Brain d...

New research finds possible genetic link to cause of pregnancy loss and disorders

...cause of a condition at the root of genetic disorders such as Down Syndrome, pregnancy loss and infertility. Called aneuploidy, the condition is an abnormal number of chromosomes, and the research team found that if a mother's egg cell has a mutation in just one copy of a gene, called Bub1, then she is les...

'Normal' cells far from cancer give nanosignals of trouble

...ield effect," a biological phenomenon in which cells located some distance from a malignant or premalignant tumor undergo molecular and other kinds of abnormal changes. The most striking findings were that these nanoscale alterations occurred at some distance from the tumor and, importantly, could be iden...

Natural compound stops retinopathy

... the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. In some people with diabetic retinopathy, blood vessels may swell and leak fluid. In other people, abnormal new blood vessels grow on the surface of the retina. Over time, diabetic retinopathy can get worse and cause some vision loss or blindness. Oklaho...

Brain malformations significantly associated with preterm birth, Wake Forest research shows

...tself could possibly offer some clue to the association. Among the malformations studied with the highest rates of preterm birth were hydrocephaly, an abnormal buildup of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles of the brain (65.2 percent); anencephaly, a defect in the closure of the neural tube during fet...

New test can detect both genetic and chromosomal abnormalities in embryos

...e cystic fibrosis, but that it was also capable of detecting aneuploidy (an abnormal number of any of the 23 pairs of chromosome) at the same time. This is the ...e. "The range of applications is broad and includes single gene defects, abnormal chromosome number, structural chromosome abnormalities and HLA [human leuko...

New, less invasive genetic test greatly improves pregnancy rates in older women with poor prognosis

...ormalities, and therefore the resulting embryos were also chromosomally abnormal. Some of the women had a tendency to produce eggs that were extremely abnormal and carried multiple chromosome errors. This could explain the poor reproductive history of these women, the scientists say. "But where we could fi...

Reading the brain without poking it

...ile the cranium is held in place but not reattached. The large electrodes each several millimeters in diameter do not penetrate the brain but detect abnormal electrical activity and allow surgeons to locate and remove a small portion of the brain causing the seizures. ECoG and microECoG represe...

NYU Langone Medical Center awarded NIH grants totaling $1,560,000

...ned by any known environmental or host factors. He postulates that gastroesophageal reflux alters the esophageal microbiome and chronic exposure to an abnormal (altered) microbiome is carcinogenic. Initial research has shown that patients carrying particular types of microbiomes are more likely to have the ea...

The battle for CRTC2: How obesity increases the risk for diabetes

...lood glucose levels. We asked whether chronic ER stress in obesity leads to abnormal activation of the fasting switch that normally controls glucose production ...le have a stronger tendency to become diabetic. When ER stress signaling is abnormal glucose output is actually increased." "It is possible that mutations in...

UCLA cancer researchers develop model that may help identify cancer stem cells

... effort to find lung cancer stem cells, Batra and his team collected specimens from patients with malignant pleural effusions, a condition in which an abnormal amount of fluid collects between the thin layers of tissue lining the outside of the lung and the wall of the chest cavity. They had found in previ...

Major breakthrough in early detection and prevention of AMD

... to the eye. Central vision loss occurs when these abnormal blood vessels invade the retina, the light-sensiti...bati's research team was able to detect these same abnormal blood vessels in the living eyes of mice by attach...antum dots to attach to CCR3 on the surface of the abnormal blood vessels, making them visible with convention...

Protein linked to change in tissue that surround and support breast tumors

...nse tissue, which seems to increase growth factor responses, is required for cancer to develop, or whether cancer would regress if development of this abnormal stroma was interrupted," she says. ...

American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- June 3, 2009

... "on-off switch," the medications might ratchet up the production of proteins in genes working at abnormally low levels or shut off genes producing an abnormal protein linked to disease. Their report is in the current issue of ACS Chemical Biology , a monthly journal. In the study, Anna K. Mapp and collea...

Scientists discover new genetic immune disorder in children

...y is that the symptoms of this devastating disease can now be treated," said NIAMS director and immunodermatologist, Stephen I. Katz, M.D., Ph.D. "The abnormal inflammatory pathways seen in this disease may also help us understand other common diseases that share clinical features, such as psoriasis, as well ...

UCSF discovers new glucose-regulating protein linked with diabetes

...studied since the 1980s and is known to be instrumental in moving proteins between cellular compartments. CHC22 was observed to be associated with the abnormal GLUT4 compartments in muscles from diabetic patients which, for some reason, do not mobilize to the muscle cell surface when stimulated by insulin. ...

A bad performance is better than no performance at all

...rom the song of conspecifics. Although these birds develop song, it usually contains abnormalities. Whether the descendants of such birds accept these abnormal songs of their parents as a song model was investigated by researchers around Sandra Belzner and Stefan Leitner from the Max Planck Institute for Orni...

Zebrafish provide a model for cancerous melanoma in humans

...ndicating that zebrafish respond similarly to changes in these signals as do humans. Zebrafish that were born from the original mutant fish displayed abnormal growth of their melanocytes, reminiscent of familial atypical mole and melanoma syndrome (FAMM) seen in humans. By producing other signaling molecules...

Strong immune response to new siRNA drugs in development may cause toxic side effects

... New Rochelle, NY, May 20, 2009Small synthetic fragments of genetic material called small interfering RNA (siRNA) can block production of abnormal proteins; however, these exciting new drug candidates can also induce a strong immune response, causing toxic side effects. Understanding how siRNA st...

American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- May 13, 2009

...detailed identification and analysis of a group of abnormal proteins in platelets from diabetic donors. The st... of medical conditions. Scientists have known that abnormal platelets in the blood of diabetics may predispose...ected platelets from diabetics show almost as many abnormal changes (more than 100) in protein content as heal...

UC Davis bioengineer receives Hartwell Foundation grant to address skull fusion disorder of infants

...premature fusing of one or more of the sutures necessary for the skull to expand as the child's brain grows. If left untreated, the disorder can cause abnormal head shape and increased pressure on the brain resulting in brain damage. In a standard operation, surgeons remove swaths of fused bone, break them...

Heart protein regulates blood vessel maintenance

... vessels that suffer from injury. "By understanding the pathways that modulate vSMCs, we are closer to being able to develop reagents to ameliorate abnormal function of blood vessels," says Hata, associate professor at Tufts University School of Medicine and a member of the biochemistry program faculty at ...

Preclinical work shows how one gene causes severe mental retardation

...odel to learn if this experience-dependent reorganization of the cortex was abnormal in animals that were missing the gene," said Michael Ehlers, M.D., Ph.D., a...t are important for language, cognition and emotion, all of which are quite abnormal in Angelman syndrome patients." The authors found that brains cells in A...

UAB professor receives HudsonAlpha Innovation Prize

...cipants in a growing number of autoimmune diseases," said Weaver. "By understanding how this class of T cells develops and functions in normal and abnormal immunity, we hope to identify new approaches to curb these cells' destructive potential as a means to treat patients who suffer from certain types of ...

Drug prevents seizure progression in model of epilepsy

... Epilepsy is a neurological disorder marked by abnormal electrical activity in the brain that leads to rec...and spontaneity, leading Barth to believe that the abnormal increased activity of the channels might play a ro...ers believe that targeting the BK channels and the abnormal brain activity that they induce might one day be u...

Genetic study confirms the immune system's role in narcolepsy

... "If we can define the changes in the T cell receptor associated with narcolepsy-cataplexy, we might be able to develop drugs that block the protein's abnormal activity and prevent the onset of the disorder," says Dr. Mignot. Current treatments such as stimulant drugs for combating daytime sleepiness and anti...

Small molecules might block mutant protein production in Huntington's disease

...in production can stop human cells from making the abnormal molecules that cause Huntington's disease, researc...man-made molecules also were effective against the abnormal protein that causes Machado-Joseph disease, a neur...hado-Joseph are fatal inherited diseases caused by abnormal repeats of a small segment in a person's DNA, or g...

Early detection of lung cancer: New data presented at multidisciplinary meeting

...roach to diagnosis that ensures a patient has had a chest CT scan before they attend a clinic has the potential to reduce the time between their first abnormal chest X-ray and final diagnosis. Also during the conference, Greek investigators suggest that they may have found a new factor that will help indic...

3-D research model tackles prostate cancer spread

...ous research had found that when the prostate cancer cells changed the bone environment they eventually induced more bone formation. "But it is very abnormal growth which can cause bone fractures and painful spinal compression for the person. " ...

Researchers discover that gene switches on during development of epilepsy

...urs in calcium channels that help to transmit this abnormal activity throughout the brain." Calcium channel...rmines how excitable the cells are, and how easily abnormal activity spreads through the brain. If, as in ...annel caused brain activity to become increasingly abnormal and epileptic. "Calcium channels underlie valua...

Mouse model provides a new tool for investigators of human developmental disorder

...lar to characteristics seen in WHS patients. For example, the mice are born with heart defects due to thickening of the cardiac valves, and they have abnormal facial and skeletal structures compared to normal mice. The mutant mice also have deformities in throat cartilage structures, which may provide insigh...
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