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stem in Biological Definition

Antibody

..., it is the area where these V, D and J genes are found - otherwise known as the complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3). The Fc fragment is the stem of the "Y" and is composed from two heavy chains that each contribute two to three constant domains (depending on the class of the antibody). It binds...

Brain

...eurons leading to decrements in movement control, memory, and thinking abilities. Currently, only the symptoms of these diseases can be treated, but stem cell research may offer a cure. Mental illnesses , such as clinical depression , schizophrenia , bipolar disorder , and post-traumatic stress di...

Cancer

...ation of the cell. Carcinomas originate in epithelial cells , e.g. skin , digestive tract or glands . Leukemia starts in the bone marrow stem cells . Lymphoma is a cancer originating in lymphatic tissue . Melanoma arises in melanocytes . Sarcoma begins in the connective tissue of ...

Cell growth

...increase in size after they are first formed from a parental cell. Typical stem cells reproduce, double in size, then reproduce again. Most Cytosolic co... articles Bacterial growth Cancer Developmental biology stem cell Cell cycle ...

Cloning

...me under ethical scrutiny and is generally treated as an entirely different kind of operation. Therapeutic cloning is the procedure for creating stem cells genetically compatible with the patient. Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Species cloned 2 Health aspects 3 Hum...

Developmental biology

...ns , for example, Down syndrome . An understanding of the specialization of cells during embryogenesis may shield information on how to specialize stem cells to specific tissues and organs, which could lead to the specific cloning of organs for medical purposes. Another biologically important proce...

Down syndrome

...d with Down syndrome is rarely measured above 60. Brains of children with Down syndrome are usually small and underweight. The cerebellum and brain stem are unusually small, as is the superior temporal gyrus . Educational progress may also be damaged by illness and disabilities, such as recurring in...

Embryo

...ts earliest stage of development . Plants : In botany , a plant embryo is part of a seed , consisting of precursor tissues for the leaves, stem (see hypocotyl ), and root (see radicle ), as well as one or more cotyledons . Once the embryo begins to germinate — grow out from th...

Morphogenesis

...cascade. Another class of molecules involved in morphogenesis are molecules that control cell adhesion . For example, during gastrulation clumps of stem cells switch off their cell-to-cell adhesion, become migratory, and take up new positions with an embryo where they again activate specific cell adhe...

Gene therapy

... Types of gene therapy In theory it is possible to transform either somatic cells (most cells of the body) or cells of the germline (such as stem cells , sperm and eggs ). All gene therapy so far in people has been directed at somatic cells, whereas germline engineering in humans remains only...

Immune system

...ucion of an attenuated pathogen. The adaptive immune system is based on immune cells called leukocytes (or white blood cells) that are produced by stem cells in the bone marrow . In many species, including mammals , the adaptive immune system can be divided into two major sections: The humor...

Intermediate filament

... Neurofilament-L (NF-L) Neurofilament-M (NF-M) Neurofilament-H (NF-H) Nestin Intermediate filament type VI. It is found in neural stem cells . Cell adhesion At the plasma membrane , IFs are attached by adapter proteins forming desmosomes (cell-cell adhesion) and hemidesmoso...

Leaf

...e). The point at which the petiole attaches to the stem is called the leaf axil . Not every species pro...e up of: xylem , which brings water from the stem into the leaf. phloem , which usually moves sa... Specialized leaves. Arrangement on the stem Spiral — leaf attachments arranged in ...

Monophyletic

... In phylogenetics , a group is monophyletic ( Greek : of one stem ) if all organisms in that group are known to have developed from a common ancestral form, and all descendants of that form are included in the grou...

Morphogenesis

...cascade. Another class of molecules involved in morphogenesis are molecules that control cell adhesion . For example, during gastrulation clumps of stem cells switch off their cell-to-cell adhesion, become migratory, and take up new positions with an embryo where they again activate specific cell adhe...

Muscle

...ibute signals to influence muscle tone and response. Deeper muscles such as those involved in posture often are controlled from nuclei in the brain stem and basal ganglia . Afferent leg Sometimes known as muscle memory , the sense of where our bodies are in space is called proprioception ,...

Oncogene

...s of regulation the creation of a hybrid protein , through a chromosomal aberration during cell division . A distinct aberration in a dividing stem cell in the bone marrow leads to adult leukemia An increase in protein concentration, caused by an increase of protein expression (throu...

Prion

...nefit of sharing resources [1] . Prions have also been speculatively linked to memory [2] and cellular differentiation , the process by which stem cells take on specialized functions (such as muscle or blood cells). Yeast Prions In 1965 , Brian Cox, a geneticist working with the yea...

Spermatogenesis

...n the male gonads or testes . Sperm cells develop initially from germ stem cells known as spermatogonia . As these differentiate they become spermato...Type A spermatogonia stay as spermatogonia, and do not change. They act as stem cells and will divide again producing more Type A and B cells. The prima...

Stem cell

... stem cells are primal, undifferentiated cells which ...cell in the body. Many medical researchers believe stem cells have the potential to revolutionize medicin...le("show","hide") 1 Types 2 Sources of stem cells 2.1 Cord blood...

T cell

... 4 External links T cell development Throughout life, a source of all lymphocytes remains bone marrow. Progeny of multipotential lymphoid stem cells (CFU-L) that are destined to become T cells, move into thymus, where they are called thymocytes . Thymocytes are immature T cells. The diffe...

Vestibular system

...itis , and BPPV. In addition, the function of the vestibular system can be affected by tumors on the cochleo-vestibular nerve, an infarct in the brain stem or in cortical regions related to the processing of vestibular signals, and cerebellar atrophy. Less severe, but often also with large consequences, i...
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