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Abiogenesis

...genesis, and laid it down as an observed fact that some animals spring from putrid matter, that plant lice... which is a theory that intelligent life, through some natural mechanism, effectively began at the same t...es, impossible." [2] The above link contains some articles that challenge this claim. Reference...

Albinism

... family. The myth that all persons with albinism have "white hair and red eyes" is not true. Colorless iris in humans is pale blue, not pink like in some animals, and the human eye is too deep for the pupil to appear red rather than black. Growth and development of children with albinism should be (an...

Alcohol

... aldehyde , ketone or carboxylic acid ), then it is necessary to use the prefix "hydroxy", for example: 1-hydroxypropan-2-one (CH 3 COCH 2 OH). some examples of simple alcohols and how to name them: Common names for alcohols usually take the name of the corresponding alkyl group and add the...

Alexander Fleming

...ated. Fleming issued a publication about penicillin in the British Journal of Experimental Pathology in 1929 . Fleming worked with the mould for some time, but refining and growing it was a difficult process better suited to chemists. In part by believing its effect may only hold valid with small i...

Allele

...petals, but there may be several different versions of the gene. One version might result in red petals, while another might result in white petals. some organisms are diploid - that is, they have paired homologous chromosomes in their somatic cells , and thus contain two copies of each gene. An or...

Alga

...hey are generally regarded as simple plants , and some are related to the higher plants . Others repres...as the cyanophytes or Blue-green Algae , though some recent treatises on algae specifically exclude the...ings to appear in the fossil record , dating back some 3800 million years ago ( Precambrian ) when they m...

Alpha helix

...usually are not able to adopt the alpha helical structure, since the entropic cost associated with the folding of the polypeptide chain is too high. some amino acids (called helix breakers ) like proline will disrupt the helical structure. Ordinarily, a helix has a buildup of positive charge at th...

Alternative splicing

...by Serine/Arginine-residue proteins, or SR proteins . The use of alternative splicing factors leads to a modification of the definition of a "gene". some have proposed that a gene should be considered as a twofold information structure: A DNA sequence coding for the pre-mRNA An additional DNA co...

Amine

...an an amine. See the Category:Amines for a list of types of amine and some real examples of this class of chemical. As shown in the following p...uaternary ammonium salts . The X shown in the above reactions can also be some other leaving group forming a corresponding acid or anion. Because inve...

Ames test

...essary. Occasionally a tested agent will be toxic enough to simply kill the bacterial culture in which case a "thin lawn" is observed. S-9 In some Ames assays an S-9 mix is added. The S-9 mix contains liver enzymes , generally from a rat. These enzymes can metabolize the agent being tested in or...

Amino acid

...lation: Selenocysteine is incorporated into some proteins at a UGA codon , which is normally a stop codon. Pyrrolysine is used by some methanogens in enzymes that they use to produc...ically coded, over 100 have been found in nature. some of those were found in meteoritic material. Mi...

Anatomy

...ure to make the articles on physiology, surgery, medicine and pathology intelligible; and, secondly, to give the non-expert inquirer, or the worker in some other branch of science, the chief theories on which the modern scientific groundwork of anatomy is built. Major body systems: Integumentary s...

Animal

...y on in their development as embryos , although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on. A..., the flatworms. These were originally considered some of the most primitive Bilateria, but it now appear...rates, but it now appears they are paraphyletic , some closer to the Nemertea and...

Antibiotic

...ntibiotics vary widely in their effectiveness on various types of bacteria. some specific antibiotics (called "narrow-spectrum antibiotics") target either ...esisted at least one antibiotic. In certain settings, such as hospitals and some child-care locations, the rate of antibiotic resistance is so high that t...

Antibiotic resistance

...berculosis is commonly resistant to isoniazid and rifampin and sometimes universally resistant to the common treatments. Other pathogens showing some resistance include Salmonella , Campylobacter , and Streptococci . Alternatives to antibiotics Prevention Wash hands properly to...

Antibody

...tivated upon binding to their specific antigen. In some cases the interaction of the B cell with a T help...ins are about 110 amino acids long. There are also some amino acids between constant domains. There are ...t. Immunoglobulins are all in the gamma region. In some disease states ( myeloma ) a very high concentrati...

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

...ry of the microscopic world over three centuries ago. He is thought by some to have been the model for Vermeer 's painting The Geographer (Stadelsch...ppointed curator for the financial affairs of Vermeer's widow. This has led some people to believe that the two must have been friends, even though acting a...

Apoptosis

...ntain their internal states within certain limits. some authors and researchers like Steven Rose and Anto...by Thibert and her colleagues has begun to clarify some of the fundamental aspects of morphogenesis , or ...th domain protein (FADD) and caspases 8 and 10. In some types of cells (type I), processed caspase-8 direc...

Archaea

...ifficult because they are similar to bacteria in some respects but similar to eukaryotes in others. ... Habitats Many archaeans are extremophiles . some live at very high temperatures, often above 100&de...s range from 0.1 to over 15 μm in diameter, and some form aggregates or filaments up to 200 μm in le...

Artificial life

... Nature of the field Although the study of artificial life does have some significant overlap with the study of artificial intelligence (AI), the t...ich could create copies of themselves. They could be programmed to perform some function (extracting fresh water, harvesting minerals from seawater) for an...

Reproduction

... "splitting" themselves into two or more parts and regrow their body parts. some 'asexual' species, like hydra and jellyfish , may also sexually reproduc...re a wide range of reproductive strategies employed by different species. some animals, like the human (sexually mature after adolescence ) and Northe...

Aseptic technique in microbiology

...be or flask to which the specimen is to be transferred, an innoculating loop , and a fire source, all on a clean, preferably microbe-free surface with some overhead protection from airborne microbes. The person would start the fire, and move the end of the innoculating loop, in a slow back-and-forth ...

ATP synthase

...eral term for an enzyme that can synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate by utilizing some form of energy. The overall reaction sequence is: ADP + P i → ATP ATP synthase in E. coli These enzymes are of crucial...

ATPase

...ess is widely used in all known forms of life . some such enzymes are integral membrane proteins (anc... ATPase include cotransporters and pumps (however, some exchangers are also pumps). some of these, like the Na + /K + ATPase, cause a net f...

Avian influenza

...r to the Spanish Flu that killed over 20 million people in 1918 (though a variety of sources quote average figures even higher, up to 100 million in some cases). Many health experts are concerned that a virus that mutates to the point where it can cross the species barrier (i.e. from birds to humans) w...

Axon

... mode of electrical impulse propagation called saltation . The axons of some neurons branch to form axon collaterals , along which the bifurcated impuls...e travels simultaneously to signal more than one other cell. History some of the first intracellular recordings in a nervous system were made in the ...

Bacterial conjugation

... bacteria and initiate the mating. The pili themselves do not seem to be the structures through which the actual exchange of DNA takes place; rather, some proteins coded in the tra or trb loci seem to open a channel between the bacteria. The transfer of DNA always runs from the F-positive towards t...

Beta sheet

...side of the sheet are hydrophobic, while many of those adjacent to each other on the alternate side of the sheet are polar or charged (hydrophilic). some sequences involved in a β sheet, when traced along the backbone, take a hairpin turn in orientation (direction), sometimes through one or more ...

Barr body

...random in mammals , except in marsupials and in some extra-embryonic tissues of some placental mammals, in which the father's X chromos... gene are present on the different chromosomes; in some regions of the body one allele will be active, and...

Biology

... archaea , and eukaryotes as described initially by Carl Woese . Trees constructed with other genes are generally similar, although they may place some early-branching groups very differently, presumably owing to rapid rRNA evolution. The exact relationships of the three domains are still being debat...

Biodiversity

...d by organisms of the same species or by another. some species develop social organisations to improve ...logical role of biodiversity All species provide some kind of function to an ecosystem. They can capture...division and appropriation of natural resources. some of the important economic commodities that biodive...

Barbiturate

...s as central nervous system (CNS) depressants , and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia . some also are used as anticonvulsants . Barbiturates are derivatives of barbituric acid. Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Medical...

Bacterium

...accepted by molecular biologists but criticized by some others, who maintain that he over-emphasized a few...oautotrophs include the cyanobacteria , which are some of the oldest organisms known from the fossil reco...alt , copper and nickel for normal growth. For some species, additional trace elements such as seleni...

Biological membrane

... lipid bilayer , being composed of a double layer of lipid -class molecules , specifically phospholipids , with occasional proteins intertwined, some of which function as channels . Such membranes typically define enclosed spaces or compartments in which cells may maintain a chemical or bi...

Biologist

... that govern how organisms work. Biologists involved in applied reseach attempt to develop or improve medical, industrial or agricultural processes. some biologists work in management positions coordinating or supervising reseach. Technicians perform specialized tasks using laboratory equipment. (U.S....

Biomechanics

...vel, all the way up to the tissue and organ level. some simple applications of Newtonian Mechanics can ...details demand the use of Continuum Mechanics . some simple examples of biomechanics research include t...r Eulerian coordinates. Using these postulates and some assumptions regarding the particular problem at ha...

Bone

...ther bones by ligaments . The science of the interaction of bone and muscle is called biomechanics . The science of bones is called osteology . some illnesses afflict human bones, for example osteoporosis and cancer . The joints can be affected by arthritis . Cut and polished bone from a vari...

Biophysics

...akes its own rules and there is much mixing between departments. Biology and molecular biology - Almost all biophysics efforts are included in some biology department somewhere. To include some: gene regulation , single protein dynamics, bioenergetics, patch clamping , biomechanics . Structur...

BLAST

...nclude most of the newly sequenced organisms. BLAST is actually a family of programs (all included in the blastall executable). The following are some of the programs, ranked mostly in order of importance: Nucleotide-nucleotide BLAST (blastn) : This program, given a DNA query, returns the most ...

Blood

...tween 7.35 and 7.45. Small invertebrates In some small invertebrates like insects , oxygen is si... cells (together with endothelial vessel cells and some other cells) are also marked by proteins that defi... dioxide diffuses from the tissues into the blood. some carbon dioxide is dissolved in the blood....
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