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Abiogenesis

...olecule, and Leslie_Orgel co-proposed Directed Panspermia hypothesis for how life started on Earth. However, it should be noted that panspermia per se is not actually in conflict with abiogenesis (though Hoyle's interpretation of panspermia clearly does conflict). Rather, it simply moves the orig...

Active transport

...second messenger . But the ATPase exports calcium ions more slowly: only 30 per second versus 2000 per second by the exchanger. The exchanger comes into service when the calcium ...

Alpha helix

...ices are one of the basic structural elements in proteins, together with beta sheets . The peptide backbone of an α helix has 3.6 amino acids per turn. See also : tertiary structure -- β sheet -- collagen helix References David Eisenberg, "The discovery of the α...

Antibiotic resistance

... , greatly hastens the development of methicillin resistance, even in organisms that have never been exposed to the selective pressure of methicillin per se . Other factors contributing towards resistance include incorrect diagnosis, unnecessary prescriptions, improper use of antibiotics by patients, an...

Reproduction

...t unless raised in an artificial environment, most offspring do not survive to adults . A rabbit (mature after 8 months) produces 10 - 30 offspring per year, a Nile Crocodile (15 years) produces 50, and a fruit fly (10-14 days) produces up to 900. Both strategies can be favoured by evolution : an...

ATPase

... a fixed number of solute molecules are transported for each ATP molecule that is hydrolyzed; for example, 3 Na + ions inward and 2 K + ions outward per ATP hydrolyzed, for the Na + /K + exchanger. Transmembrane ATPases harness the chemical potential energy of ATP, because they perform mechanical ...

Blood

...bout 4-6 liters of blood in an average human body, accounting for approximately 8% of body mass . Adult humans have about 60 milliliters of blood per kilogram of body weight. Human blood is red , ranging from bright red when oxygenated to dark red when not. It owes its colour to hemoglobin ,...

Full blood count

...sed to calculate the number of red and white cells per litre of blood. To identify the numbers of diffe...number of red cells is given as an absolute number per liter. Hemoglobin - The amount of hemoglobin in the blood, expressed in grams per liter. (Low hemoglobin is called anemia .) Hem...

Cellular respiration

...nnot be further broken down by fermentation, making fermentation less efficient than respiration. Fermentation releases a total of two ATP molecules per molecule of glucose (compare to the approximately 38 of aerobic respiration). See also Citric acid cycle Carbohydrate catabolism ...

Cilium

...he beating of cilia moves the ovum from the ovary to the uterus . Opposite to the motile cilia, non-motile cilium usually exists as one cilium per cell. The outer segment of the rod photoreceptor cell in the human eye is connected to its cell body with a specialized non-motile cilium. The termi...

Collagen

... of Gly residues allows the otherwise sterically disallowed, tight coiling of each of the alpha chain subunits of tropocollagen, where there is a rise per turn of just 0.3 nm as opposed to the .36 nm of a regular Alpha helical coil. Hydroxylysine and hydroxyproline play important roles in the stabilisati...

Cryptozoology

...ny are respected scientists in other fields, and though discoveries of previously unknown animals are often subject to great attention, cryptozoology per se has never been fully embraced by the scientific community, and one cannot obtain a cryptozoological degree from any college or university . R...

Diabetes mellitus

... measured and a result in either mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter in the USA) or mmol/L (millimoles per litre in Europe) of blood. The average normal pers...tal healthcare costs for those patients by US$1000 per year...

Dialysis

...lthough there are patients who dialyse 2 or 4 or 5 per week. There are also a small number of patients who undergo nocturnal dialysis for 8 hours per night 6 nights per week. Step-by-step description of hemodialysis: ...

DNA

... predominate in cells. It is 2 nanometres wide and extends 3.4 nanometres per 10 bp of sequence. This is also the approximate length of sequence in whi... the chain. Supercoiled DNA The B form of the DNA helix twists 360 per 10.6 bp in the absence of strain. But many molecular biological processes c...

Down syndrome

...l links Overview Incidence of Down syndrome is estimated at 1 per 660 births, making it the most common chromosomal abnormality. Maternal age...rein 1500 children with Down Syndrome should, statistically, have been born per year (at a prevalence rate of 1:600), but only 63 p.a. were listed in the 1...

Gel electrophoresis

...g on the number of different molecules, each lane shows separation of the components from the original mixture as one or more distinct bands, one band per component. Incomplete separation of the components can lead to overlapping bands, or to indistinguishable smears representing multiple unresolved com...

Enzyme

... which is still widely used today (usually referred to as Michaelis-Menten kinetics ). Enzymes can perform up to several million catalytic reactions per second; to determine the maximum speed of an enzymatic reaction, the substrate concentration is increased until a constant rate of product formation i...

Fitness landscape

...or fitness landscape . A high f(s) implies that s is a good solution. In the case of the delivery truck, f(s) could be the number of deliveries per hour on route s . The best, or at least a very good, solution is then found in the following way. Initially, a population of random solutions is crea...

Gel electrophoresis

...g on the number of different molecules, each lane shows separation of the components from the original mixture as one or more distinct bands, one band per component. Incomplete separation of the components can lead to overlapping bands, or to indistinguishable smears representing multiple unresolved com...

Glucose

...enesis . Role in metabolism Carbohydrates are the human body's key source of energy, providing 4 calories (17 kilojoules ) of food energy per gram . Breakdown of carbohydrates (e.g. starch ) yields mono- and disaccharides, most of which are glucose. Through glycolysis , glucose is immedia...

Homeostasis

...unconscious adjustments. Homeostasis should be thought of as a general characterization of many normal processes in concert, not their proximal cause per se . Moreover, there are numerous biological phenomena which do not conform to this model, such as anabolism . Other fields The term has com...

Human

.... Biologists have compared a sequence of DNA base pairs between humans and chimpanzees, and estimated an overall genetic difference of less than 1 per cent. It has been estimated that the human lineage diverged from that of chimpanzees about five million years ago, and from gorillas about eight milli...

Interphase

... Cells during interphase may or may not be growing. At any given time, even in an area of rapid cell division such as the tip of a plant root , 90 per cent of cells are in interphase. Some cells, such as nerve cells, can stay in interphase for decades. The cell grows and replicates its DNA and cen...

Kary Mullis

...e has also advocated that concentrations be measured in "number of things per milliliter" instead of " moles per milliliter" because of the arbitrariness of Avogadro's number . He denigr...

Kidney

...'s blood pass through the kidneys 350 times a day at the rate of 1.2 litres per minute, producing 125cc of glomerular filtrate per minute. Measuring the glomerular filtration rate is a diagnostic test o...

Long-term potentiation

...umans the hippocampus is located in the medial temporal lobe . LTP was first observed by Terje Lmo in 1966 in the Oslo , Norway , laboratory of per Andersen [20] . He tested the spatial memory of two groups of rats, one whose hippocampi were bathed in the NMDA receptor blocker APV , and the ot...

Michaelis-Menten kinetics

...emperature, etc) are at optimal values. Diagram of reaction speed and Michaelis-Menten constant. The speed V means the number of reactions per second that are catalyzed by an enzyme. With increasing substrate concentration [S], the enzyme is asymptotically approaching its maximum speed V ...

Antibiotic resistance

... , greatly hastens the development of methicillin resistance, even in organisms that have never been exposed to the selective pressure of methicillin per se . Other factors contributing towards resistance include incorrect diagnosis, unnecessary prescriptions, improper use of antibiotics by patients, an...

Nucleosome

...plex in two turns, with each turn consisting of about 80 base pairs . Together with the DNA linking two nucleosomes, there are about 200 bps of DNA per nucleosome. Nucleosomes are involved in processes ranging from compaction of DNA to transcriptional control, and appear to be major carriers of epig...

Nutrition

...eater variety of different foods every day than Westerners (27 different foods a day whereas the recommended minimum in the West is 30 different foods per week); they are less prone to the 'diseases of civilization' - diabetes , heart disease and cancer - than Europeans, and their varied diet is tho...

Osmosis

...pposed by increasing the pressure in the region of high solute concentration with respect to that in the low solute concentration region. The force per unit area required to prevent the passage of water through a semi-permeable membrane and into a solution of greater concentration is equivalent to the...

Polymerase chain reaction

...he length of the DNA fragment to be amplified. As a rule-of-thumb, 1 minute per 1000bp. Figure 2 : Schematic drawing of the PCR cycle. (1) Denatu...consists of : 1.0 l DNA template (100 ng/l) 2.5 l of primer, 1.25 l per primer (100 ng/l) 1.0 l Pfu-Polymerase 1.0 l nucleotides 5.0 l buf...

Photon

... excited state , . State in a vacuum In a vacuum , all photons move at the speed of light , c , defined as equal to 299,792,458 metres per second (the metre is defined as the distance travelled by light in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second , so the speed of light does not suffer ...

Population

... Population density is a measure of the number of people or organisms per unit of area. Variants may express the population per unit of habitable, inhabited, productive (or potentially productive), or cu...

Potential energy

...a very large amount of energy. (i.e., 90 petajoule /kg ≈ 21 megatons /kg) Electrical potential energy The electrical potential energy per unit charge is called electrical potential . It is expressed in volts . The fact that a potential is always relative to a reference point is often m...

Punctuated equilibrium

...n is 7 years, then the given timespan corresponds to 10000 generations. Thus, on average, the limb grows at the minute, gradual rate of only 0.005 cm per generation (= 50 cm / 10000 generations). The theory is often referred to as an explanation for purported "gaps in the fossil record", i.e. the so-c...

Semen

...External links Composition Around 200 million to 500 million spermatozoa (or 'sperm', for short), produced in the testes , are released per ejaculation. However, they make up only about 2–5% of the volume of semen. The bulk of the semen is composed of seminal plasma, the fluid portio...

Reproduction

...t unless raised in an artificial environment, most offspring do not survive to adults . A rabbit (mature after 8 months) produces 10 - 30 offspring per year, a Nile Crocodile (15 years) produces 50, and a fruit fly (10-14 days) produces up to 900. Both strategies can be favoured by evolution : an...

Signal transduction

...asma membrane of a retina cell in the eye that was activated by a photon can activate up to 2000 effector molecules (in this case, transducin ) per second. The total strength of signal amplification by a receptor is determined by: The lifetime of the hormone-receptor-complex. The more sta...
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