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ATPase

... of transmembrane ATPase include cotransporters and pumps (however, some exchangers are also pumps). Some of these, like the Na + /K + ATPase, cause a net flow of charge, but others do not. These are called "electrogenic" and "nonelectrogenic" transporters, respectively. The coupling between ATP hydrol...

Carbon fixation

...ctions of photosynthesis. These three carbon dioxide molecules undergo the chemical reactions in the Calvin cycle. The end result is that there is a net output of a single G3P ; and in two turns of the Calvin cycle when two G3P are output, then they are combined to form organic compounds, specifically...

Cellular respiration

...two molecules of glycerate-3-phosphate again lose phosphate forming two molecules of pyruvate, with the production of another two ATP molecules (for a net gain of 2 ATP). Breakdown of pyruvate There are now two ways to break down the resulting pyruvate: Aerobic respiration (Cellular Respirat...

Colchicine

...part from inhibiting mitosis , a process heavily dependent on cytoskeletal changes, it also inhibits neutrophil motility and activity, leading to a net anti-inflammatory effect. Colchicine as medicine Colchicine is FDA -approved for the treatment of gout and also for familial Mediterranea...

Cryptozoology

...cal efforts: The coelacanth , a primitive fish , a " living fossil " believed to have been extinct for 65 million years, was caught in a fishing net in 1938 off the coast of Africa . Of an even older lineage than the coelacanth are the Graptolites . Living representatives were first foun...

Diabetes mellitus

...bout 2/3 require it) nor stored appropriately in the liver and muscles. The net effect is persistent high levels of blood glucose, poor protein synthesis, ...ects of metabolic balance in a catabolic direction. The liver becomes a net producer of glucose by way of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis . Fat i...

Diffusion

...ory system 2.1.2 Facilitated diffusion 2.1.3 net flux 2.1.4 Polarity 2.1.5 Ions 2.2 D...ier protein in a membrane. As in simple diffusion, net transport is down a concentration gradient, and no... Compare with diffusion and active transport. net flux ...

Enzyme

...zed by enzymes must be 'spontaneous' (containing a net negative Gibbs free energy ), i.e. with the enz...e end products of a particular reaction (including net energy), once steady state is reached, must always...of a cycle of moving down a pathway releasing less net energy and back up a different pathway with higher...

Equilibrium

...eaction proceeds at the same rate as its reverse reaction, resulting in no net change in the amount of each compound . Mechanical equilibrium , also ...quilibrium , the state of a system in which its internal processes cause no net change in its macroscopic properties (such as temperature and pressure). ...

Fermentation

...nse, fermentation (formerly called zymnosis ) is the energy-yielding anaerobic metabolic breakdown of a nutrient molecule, such as glucose, without net oxidation. Fermentation yields lactate , acetic acid , ethanol , or some other simple product. Fermentation is also used much more broadly to ...

Fungus

...he Fungi (8th Ed.). CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom. 616p. External links Tree of Life Web Project: Fungi The Mycology net MykoWeb: Mushrooms, Fungi, Mycology North American Mycological Association Pacific Northwest Fungi Database ...

Glycolysis

... 2 ADP + 2 P i → 2 NADH + 2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 H 2 O + 2 H + So, for simple fermentations, the metabolism of 1 molecule of glucose has a net yield of 2 molecules of ATP . Cells performing respiration synthesize much more ATP but this is not considered part of glycolysis. Eukaryotic aerob...

Light-dependent reaction

...es them to drive the reaction NADP + + H + + 2e - → NADPH This consumes the H + ions produced by the splitting of water, leading to a net production of O 2 , ATP, and NADPH with the consumption of solar photons and water. ...

Nervous system

...Nervous system diversity The nervous system varies greatly among living animals. Cnidarians , such as sea anemones and jellyfish , have a nerve net , in which the activation of any one neuron triggers a wave of activation across the entire network. These waves are both afferent and efferent , r...

Osmoregulation

...ure) than another thus water wants to move out of it. Isotonic is solution with the same solute concentration (same osmotic pressure) as another; no net movement of water. Forms of osmoregulation Two major types of osmoregulation are osmoconformers and osmoregulators. Osmoconformers match thei...

Parthenogenesis

...tion may have short term benefits when rapid population growth is important or in stable environments, over the long term sexual reproduction offers a net advantage by allowing more rapid adaptation to changing environments. Asexual lineages can increase their numbers rapidly because (since individuals ...

Passive transport

...smosis Diffusion Main article: Diffusion Diffusion is the net movement of material from an area of high concentration of that material to...dient"). If and when the concentration gradient have been eliminated, no net exchange of material occurs. Although material may move forth from one area...

Light-dependent reaction

...es them to drive the reaction NADP + + H + + 2e - → NADPH This consumes the H + ions produced by the splitting of water, leading to a net production of O 2 , ATP, and NADPH with the consumption of solar photons and water. ...
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