... of life seems to be unique in that the conclusion has
already been authoritatively accepted … . Wh...can be accepted on the basis of fact and not faith has
not yet been written. (Yockey, 1977. A calculatio... history of science shows that a paradigm, once it has
achieved the status of acceptance (and is incorpor...
...denoted E1, E2, and E3). 24 pyruvate dehydrogenase has
the coenzyme TPP incorporated into it, 24 dihydrolipoyl transacetylase has
lipoate and coenzyme A, and 12 dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase has
the coenzymes FAD and NAD + . Through a comple...
Chemically, ATP consists of adenosine and three phosphate groups. It has
the empirical formula C 10 H 16 N 5 O 13 P 3 , and the chemical formula C 1...sphate directly, with the formation of pyrophosphate . This last reaction has
the advantage of being an effectively irreversible process in aqueous so...
...er albinism gene, having normal pigment, and not being a carrier. The child has
two in four chances of getting one normal and one albinism gene, having nor...rded as cursed. In recent times, the albino dancehall singer Yellowman has
helped to end this perception.
See also: List of albinos
...the initial mixture, then once the initial binding has
been achieved, the material of interest is the unb...eir purification. That is to say that the molecule has
an artificial trait imposed upon it by genetic mo...ion purposes a nickel chelating agent is used. GST has
an affinity for glutathione (commercially availa...
... rather than an alcohol. The oxygen in an alcohol has
a bond angle of around 109° (c.f. 104.5° i...en narrowed to ethanol. This conjectured etymology has
been circulating in England since 1672 at least ...formula R O - M + . Meanwhile the oxygen atom has
lone pairs of nonbonded electrons that render it...
... organism in which both copies of the gene are identical - that is, have the same allele - is said to be homozygous for that gene. An organism which has
two different alleles of the gene is said to be heterozygous . Often one allele is "dominant" and the other is "recessive" - the "dominant" allele wi...
Alfred Russel Wallace
...ory of evolution
In 1855 , Wallace published a paper, "On the Law Which has
Regulated the Introduction of Species" (1855) , in which he gathers and enu...hic and geologic distribution of species, and concludes that "Every species has
come into existence coincident both in space and time with a closely allied...
... which is the remnant of the alga's nucleus . It has
been suggested that the euglenid chloroplasts only...ree of these groups ( Chromista ), the chloroplast has
four membranes, retaining a nucleomorph in cryptom... ancestor. The typical dinoflagellate chloroplast has
three membranes, but there is considerable diversi...
...and 4% will be homozygous (carrying two copies of the allele). So all together 36% of diploid individuals would be expected to carry an allele that has
a frequency of 20%. However, alleles distribute randomly only in the absence of selection and under other assumptions. When these conditions apply,...
...) like proline will disrupt the helical structure.
Ordinarily, a helix has
a buildup of positive charge at the N-terminal end and negative charge at t...ns, together with beta sheets .
The peptide backbone of an α helix has
3.6 amino acids per turn.
See also : tertiary structure -- β s...
... process when using the protein biosynthesis apparatus.
When the pre-mRNA has
been transcribed from the DNA , it includes several introns and exons ....tion are inherited, the interpretation of a mutation may be changed.
been proposed that for eukaryotes it was a very important step towards h...
...t;10 -10 M
Like ammonia, amines act as bases and are reasonably strong (see table for examples of conjugate acid K a values). The nitrogen atom has
a lone electron pair available which can accept a H + ion to bond to the nitrogen forming a positive substituted ammonium ion. The pairs of dots on...
...itive control cultures are exposed to a known mutagen to confirm that there has
been no contamination of the strain. Strains of bacteria are available whic...normal state, not requiring nutrients to grow. If the mutation screened for has
in fact occurred dense spots in the colonies will form. A certain number of...
...no acid residue is what is left of an amino acid once a water molecule has
been lost (an H+ from the nitrogenous side and an OH- from the carboxyl...ine) is a drug used to treat Parkinsonism .
5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan) has
been used to treat neurological problems associated with PKU (phenylketon...
...nd sensory organs. The body is triploblastic, i.e. all three germ layers are well-developed, and tissues form distinct organs. The digestive chamber has
two openings, a mouth and an anus, and there is also an internal body cavity called a coelom or pseudocoelom. There are exceptions to each of these c...
...rilized instruments) revolutionized medicine . It has
been said that this is the greatest advance in hea...the diet of healthy farm animals, as this practice has
been proved to make animals grow faster. Opponents...at are known to also infect humans, although there has
been little or no evidence as yet of such transfer...
... only effective agent available at the time. However, VRSA ( Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ) was first identified in Japan in 1997 and has
since been found in hospitals in England, France and the US. VRSA is also termed GISA (glycopeptide intermediate Staphylococcus aureus ) or VISA (van...
...ve approximately 550 amino acids. Each heavy chain has
a constant region, which is the same by all immuno...type is present in each antibody. Each light chain has
two successive domains: one constant and one varia...chains γ and two light chains. Each molecule has
two antigen binding sites. This is the most abunda...
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
...hed in the proceedings of the Royal Society .
" No more pleasant sight has
met my eye than this of so many thousands of living creatures in one small ...ek was appointed curator for the financial affairs of Vermeer's widow. This has
led some people to believe that the two must have been friends, even though...
... of influenza combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two original strains. Because the human immune system has
difficulty recognizing the new influenza strain, it may be highly dangerous.
Antigenic shift is contrasted with antigenic drift which is the nat...
... the beginning of the 1990s, research on apoptosis has
grown spectacularly. In addition to its importance...m, the number of cells within an organ or tissue has
to be constant within a certain range. Blood and s...eir respective progenitor cells; but proliferation has
to be compensated by cell death. This balancing pr...
...f Arabidopsis , consisting of five chromosomes , has
There are 30644 known genes in the Arabidopsis genome.
been used extensively in the study of the genetic ...light influenced processes. Study of this organism has
led to discoveries such as positive phototropic re...
...me Archaea, from the Greek archae or ancient. Later he treated these groups formally as domains , each comprising several kingdoms. This division has
become very popular, although the idea of the progenote itself is not generally supported. Some biologists, however, have argued that the archaebacte...
...r home discipline can be discussed. As a field, it has
had a controversial history; John Maynard Smith ...life work in 1995 as "fact-free science", and it has
not generally received much attention from biologi...ng technical,theoretical and ethical challenges it has
ever confronted. The time seems appropriate for a...
...mdash; food preparation, laundry and so forth — that maintain him and his ability to show up at his job as required. Much of this domestic labor has
historically been the responsibility of women; thus it is of particular interest in feminist economics.
...re of crucial importance in almost all organisms, because ATP is the common "energy currency" of cells.
In mitochondria , the F O F 1 ATP synthase has
a long history of scientific study. The F 1 portion of the ATP synthase is above the membrane, the F O portion is within the membrane. It's easy to ...
...firmed to be carrying H5N1. As a result Singapore has
imposed a ban on the importation of chickens and poultry products. Similarly the EU has
imposed a ban on Malaysian poultry products. A cull of all poultry has
been ordered by the government within a 10km radiu...
...ng of gametes and the creation of a zygote , it is merely the exchange of genetic information. In order to perform conjugation, one of the bacteria has
to carry an F- plasmid , the other one must not.
The F-plasmid (also called F-factor) is an episome (a plasmid that can integrate itself into th...
...d for bone marrow , where B cells are produced in all other vertebrates.
The human body makes hundreds of different types of B cells, and each type has
a unique receptor protein on its membrane that will bind to one particular antigen; at any one time in the human body millions of B cells are circulat...
...l, organizing concepts in biology is that all life has
descended from a common origin through a process...nal concept of modern biology, it means that there has
been an unbroken continuity of life from the initi... article: List of biology disciplines
become such a vast research enterprise that it is ...
...aders, and concerned citizens world-wide. This use has
coincided with the expansion of concern over exti... Biodiversity definitions
Biological diversity has
no single standard definition. One definition hol...the traditional three levels at which biodiversity has
genetic diversity - div...
...yer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity. The blastula follows the morula and precedes the gastrula in the development sequence. A blastula has
around 128 cells, with a large central cavity called the blastocoel . Also called blastosphere .
...x cells, called eukaryotes . The term "bacteria" has
variously applied to all prokaryotes or to a major...eria, Archaea , and Eucarya . This redefinition has
generally been accepted by molecular biologists bu...hat belong to the genus Cytophaga . This ability has
also been utilized by humans for industrial uses a...
...m the sequence on the gene that codes for it. But, the protein can only function correctly if it is folded in a very special and individual way (if it has
the correct secondary , tertiary and quaternary structure). The prediction of this folding just by looking at the amino acid sequence is qu...
... , and other biomolecules . Recently biochemistry has
focused more specifically on the chemistry of enz... proteins.
The biochemistry of cell metabolism has
been extensively described. Other areas of biochem...uber, a German chemist . Since then, biochemistry has
advanced, especially since the mid- 20th century ,...
...de a plant engineered to express a pesticide , thereby eliminating the need for external application of pesticides.
The term blue biotechnology has
also been used to describe the marine and aquatic applications of biotechnology, but its use is relatively rare.
... where C a 2 + and ATP move the troponin and tropomyosin to allow for the crossbridges to bind to the activation sites on the actin.
been shown that applied loads and deformations can affect the properties of living tissue. There is much research in the field of growth and remodelin...
... arrangement termed calcium hydroxyapatite), which has
relatively high compressive strength though poor... of skeletal mass; but, because of its density, it has
a low surface area. Cancellous bone is trabecular (honeycomb structure), it has
a relatively high surface area, but forms a smalle...
...ome oxyhemoglobin loses oxygen and becomes deoxyhemoglobin. Deoxyhemoglobin has
a much greater affinity for H+ than does oxyhemoglobin so it binds most of ...as the korbanot ), in the Temple in Jerusalem .
Ironically, Judaism has
historically been the religion to be most affected by blood libels .