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has in Biological Definition

Abiogenesis

... of life seems to be unique in that the conclusion has already been authoritatively accepted … . Wh...can be accepted on the basis of fact and not faith has not yet been written. (Yockey, 1977. A calculatio... history of science shows that a paradigm, once it has achieved the status of acceptance (and is incorpor...

Coenzyme A

...denoted E1, E2, and E3). 24 pyruvate dehydrogenase has the coenzyme TPP incorporated into it, 24 dihydrolipoyl transacetylase has lipoate and coenzyme A, and 12 dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase has the coenzymes FAD and NAD + . Through a comple...

Adenosine triphosphate

... Chemically, ATP consists of adenosine and three phosphate groups. It has the empirical formula C 10 H 16 N 5 O 13 P 3 , and the chemical formula C 1...sphate directly, with the formation of pyrophosphate . This last reaction has the advantage of being an effectively irreversible process in aqueous so...

Albinism

...er albinism gene, having normal pigment, and not being a carrier. The child has two in four chances of getting one normal and one albinism gene, having nor...rded as cursed. In recent times, the albino dancehall singer Yellowman has helped to end this perception. See also: List of albinos Albinis...

Affinity chromatography

...the initial mixture, then once the initial binding has been achieved, the material of interest is the unb...eir purification. That is to say that the molecule has an artificial trait imposed upon it by genetic mo...ion purposes a nickel chelating agent is used. GST has an affinity for glutathione (commercially availa...

Alcohol

... rather than an alcohol. The oxygen in an alcohol has a bond angle of around 109° (c.f. 104.5° i...en narrowed to ethanol. This conjectured etymology has been circulating in England since 1672 at least ...formula R O - M + . Meanwhile the oxygen atom has lone pairs of nonbonded electrons that render it...

Allele

... organism in which both copies of the gene are identical - that is, have the same allele - is said to be homozygous for that gene. An organism which has two different alleles of the gene is said to be heterozygous . Often one allele is "dominant" and the other is "recessive" - the "dominant" allele wi...

Alfred Russel Wallace

...ory of evolution In 1855 , Wallace published a paper, "On the Law Which has Regulated the Introduction of Species" (1855) , in which he gathers and enu...hic and geologic distribution of species, and concludes that "Every species has come into existence coincident both in space and time with a closely allied...

Alga

... which is the remnant of the alga's nucleus . It has been suggested that the euglenid chloroplasts only...ree of these groups ( Chromista ), the chloroplast has four membranes, retaining a nucleomorph in cryptom... ancestor. The typical dinoflagellate chloroplast has three membranes, but there is considerable diversi...

Allele frequency

...and 4% will be homozygous (carrying two copies of the allele). So all together 36% of diploid individuals would be expected to carry an allele that has a frequency of 20%. However, alleles distribute randomly only in the absence of selection and under other assumptions. When these conditions apply,...

Alpha helix

...) like proline will disrupt the helical structure. Ordinarily, a helix has a buildup of positive charge at the N-terminal end and negative charge at t...ns, together with beta sheets . The peptide backbone of an α helix has 3.6 amino acids per turn. See also : tertiary structure -- β s...

Alternative splicing

... process when using the protein biosynthesis apparatus. When the pre-mRNA has been transcribed from the DNA , it includes several introns and exons ....tion are inherited, the interpretation of a mutation may be changed. It has been proposed that for eukaryotes it was a very important step towards h...

Amine

...t;10 -10 M Like ammonia, amines act as bases and are reasonably strong (see table for examples of conjugate acid K a values). The nitrogen atom has a lone electron pair available which can accept a H + ion to bond to the nitrogen forming a positive substituted ammonium ion. The pairs of dots on...

Ames test

...itive control cultures are exposed to a known mutagen to confirm that there has been no contamination of the strain. Strains of bacteria are available whic...normal state, not requiring nutrients to grow. If the mutation screened for has in fact occurred dense spots in the colonies will form. A certain number of...

Amino acid

...no acid residue is what is left of an amino acid once a water molecule has been lost (an H+ from the nitrogenous side and an OH- from the carboxyl...ine) is a drug used to treat Parkinsonism . 5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan) has been used to treat neurological problems associated with PKU (phenylketon...

Animal

...nd sensory organs. The body is triploblastic, i.e. all three germ layers are well-developed, and tissues form distinct organs. The digestive chamber has two openings, a mouth and an anus, and there is also an internal body cavity called a coelom or pseudocoelom. There are exceptions to each of these c...

Antibiotic

...rilized instruments) revolutionized medicine . It has been said that this is the greatest advance in hea...the diet of healthy farm animals, as this practice has been proved to make animals grow faster. Opponents...at are known to also infect humans, although there has been little or no evidence as yet of such transfer...

Antibiotic resistance

... only effective agent available at the time. However, VRSA ( Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ) was first identified in Japan in 1997 and has since been found in hospitals in England, France and the US. VRSA is also termed GISA (glycopeptide intermediate Staphylococcus aureus ) or VISA (van...

Antibody

...ve approximately 550 amino acids. Each heavy chain has a constant region, which is the same by all immuno...type is present in each antibody. Each light chain has two successive domains: one constant and one varia...chains γ and two light chains. Each molecule has two antigen binding sites. This is the most abunda...

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

...hed in the proceedings of the Royal Society . " No more pleasant sight has met my eye than this of so many thousands of living creatures in one small ...ek was appointed curator for the financial affairs of Vermeer's widow. This has led some people to believe that the two must have been friends, even though...

Antigenic shift

... of influenza combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two original strains. Because the human immune system has difficulty recognizing the new influenza strain, it may be highly dangerous. Antigenic shift is contrasted with antigenic drift which is the nat...

Apoptosis

... the beginning of the 1990s, research on apoptosis has grown spectacularly. In addition to its importance...m, the number of cells within an organ or tissue has to be constant within a certain range. Blood and s...eir respective progenitor cells; but proliferation has to be compensated by cell death. This balancing pr...

Arabidopsis

...f Arabidopsis , consisting of five chromosomes , has been sequenced. There are 30644 known genes in the Arabidopsis genome. Arabidopsis has been used extensively in the study of the genetic ...light influenced processes. Study of this organism has led to discoveries such as positive phototropic re...

Archaea

...me Archaea, from the Greek archae or ancient. Later he treated these groups formally as domains , each comprising several kingdoms. This division has become very popular, although the idea of the progenote itself is not generally supported. Some biologists, however, have argued that the archaebacte...

Artificial life

...r home discipline can be discussed. As a field, it has had a controversial history; John Maynard Smith ...life work in 1995 as "fact-free science", and it has not generally received much attention from biologi...ng technical,theoretical and ethical challenges it has ever confronted. The time seems appropriate for a...

Reproduction

...mdash; food preparation, laundry and so forth — that maintain him and his ability to show up at his job as required. Much of this domestic labor has historically been the responsibility of women; thus it is of particular interest in feminist economics. See also conjugation sexual ...

ATP synthase

...re of crucial importance in almost all organisms, because ATP is the common "energy currency" of cells. In mitochondria , the F O F 1 ATP synthase has a long history of scientific study. The F 1 portion of the ATP synthase is above the membrane, the F O portion is within the membrane. It's easy to ...

Avian influenza

...firmed to be carrying H5N1. As a result Singapore has imposed a ban on the importation of chickens and poultry products. Similarly the EU has imposed a ban on Malaysian poultry products. A cull of all poultry has been ordered by the government within a 10km radiu...

Bacterial conjugation

...ng of gametes and the creation of a zygote , it is merely the exchange of genetic information. In order to perform conjugation, one of the bacteria has to carry an F- plasmid , the other one must not. The F-plasmid (also called F-factor) is an episome (a plasmid that can integrate itself into th...

B cell

...d for bone marrow , where B cells are produced in all other vertebrates. The human body makes hundreds of different types of B cells, and each type has a unique receptor protein on its membrane that will bind to one particular antigen; at any one time in the human body millions of B cells are circulat...

Biology

...l, organizing concepts in biology is that all life has descended from a common origin through a process...nal concept of modern biology, it means that there has been an unbroken continuity of life from the initi... article: List of biology disciplines Biology has become such a vast research enterprise that it is ...

Biodiversity

...aders, and concerned citizens world-wide. This use has coincided with the expansion of concern over exti... Biodiversity definitions Biological diversity has no single standard definition. One definition hol...the traditional three levels at which biodiversity has been identified: genetic diversity - div...

Blastula

...yer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity. The blastula follows the morula and precedes the gastrula in the development sequence. A blastula has around 128 cells, with a large central cavity called the blastocoel . Also called blastosphere . ...

Bacterium

...x cells, called eukaryotes . The term "bacteria" has variously applied to all prokaryotes or to a major...eria, Archaea , and Eucarya . This redefinition has generally been accepted by molecular biologists bu...hat belong to the genus Cytophaga . This ability has also been utilized by humans for industrial uses a...

Bioinformatics

...m the sequence on the gene that codes for it. But, the protein can only function correctly if it is folded in a very special and individual way (if it has the correct secondary , tertiary and quaternary structure). The prediction of this folding just by looking at the amino acid sequence is qu...

Biochemistry

... , and other biomolecules . Recently biochemistry has focused more specifically on the chemistry of enz... proteins. The biochemistry of cell metabolism has been extensively described. Other areas of biochem...uber, a German chemist . Since then, biochemistry has advanced, especially since the mid- 20th century ,...

Biotechnology

...de a plant engineered to express a pesticide , thereby eliminating the need for external application of pesticides. The term blue biotechnology has also been used to describe the marine and aquatic applications of biotechnology, but its use is relatively rare. Biotechnology timeline 8000B...

Biomechanics

... where C a 2 + and ATP move the troponin and tropomyosin to allow for the crossbridges to bind to the activation sites on the actin. It has been shown that applied loads and deformations can affect the properties of living tissue. There is much research in the field of growth and remodelin...

Bone

... arrangement termed calcium hydroxyapatite), which has relatively high compressive strength though poor... of skeletal mass; but, because of its density, it has a low surface area. Cancellous bone is trabecular (honeycomb structure), it has a relatively high surface area, but forms a smalle...

Blood

...ome oxyhemoglobin loses oxygen and becomes deoxyhemoglobin. Deoxyhemoglobin has a much greater affinity for H+ than does oxyhemoglobin so it binds most of ...as the korbanot ), in the Temple in Jerusalem . Ironically, Judaism has historically been the religion to be most affected by blood libels . ...
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