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Virus in Biological Definition

Virus

This article is concerned with virus as a biological infectious particle; for other uses of the term see virus (disambiguation) . An extensive treatment of the pluralization of the word "virus" in English is found in the article Plural of virus . A list of biological viruses has also been p...

DNA virus

A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and does not use an RNA intermediate during replication. Viruses that either have RNA as their genetic material or use an RNA intermediate during replication are called RNA viruses . The DNA can either be single- (ssDNA) or dou...

RNA virus

An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material , or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. For example, Hepatitis B virus is classified as an RNA virus, even though its genome is double-stranded DNA, because the genome is transc...

Tobacco mosaic virus

The Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is an RNA virus that infects plants , especially tobacco , showing characteristic patterns (mottling and discoloration) on the leaves (thus the name). It was the first virus to be discovered. In 1883 Adolf Mayer first described the disease that could be t...

Tobacco mosaic virus

The Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is an RNA virus that infects plants , especially tobacco , showing characteristic patterns (mottling and discoloration) on the leaves (thus the name). It was the first virus to be discovered. In 1883 Adolf Mayer first described the disease that could be t...

Varicella zoster virus

The varicella-zoster virus (VZV), also known as human herpesvirus 3 (HHV-3), is one of the eight herpesviruses known to affect humans (and other vertebrates). Primary VZV infection results in varicella (chickenpox), which may rarely result in complications including VZV encephalitis . Eve...

Vesicular stomatitis virus

|- valign=top |Species:|| Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus |- valign=top |Species:|| Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae , order Mononegavirales . The well-known Rabies virus belongs to the same famil...

Antibiotic

... it actually is human biochemistry, and the possible targets of antiviral compounds are restricted to the relatively very few components of the actual virus itself. External links Antibiotic News from Genome News Network (GNN) Bruce Sterling's Bitter Resistance JAAPA: New antibiotics u...

Antibody

...dies exist in clonal lines that are specific to only one antigen , e.g., a virus hull protein. In binding to such antigens, they can cause agglutination a...es that recognize viruses can block these directly by their sheer size. The virus will be unable to dock to a cell and infect it, hindered by the antibody. T...

Antigenic shift

...hich killed 40 million people worldwide. Influenza virus which have undergone antigenic shift have also gon... scientists pointed out that the avian influenza virus might undergo an antigenic shift with the human flu virus and cause a global influenza pandemic like the o...

Apoptosis

... Functions of apoptosis Cell damage or infection Apoptosis can occur, for instance, when a cell is damaged beyond repair, or infected with a virus . The "decision" for apoptosis can come from the cell itself, from its surrounding tissue or from a cell that is part of the immune system . If a ...

Arbovirus

... An Arbovirus (short for Arthropod borne virus ) is a virus that is primarily transmitted by arthropods, such...(not complete): Dengue fever Ross River virus Vesicular stomatitis...

Avian influenza

... The causative agent is the avian influenza (AI) virus . AI viruses all belong to the influenza virus A genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family and are...d clothing; however, there is no evidence that the virus can survive in well cooked meat. Cats are also...

Biology

...d in 1997 in an attempt to standardize naming in the three areas, but it does not appear to have yet been formally adopted. The International Code of virus Classification and Nomenclature (ICVCN) remains outside the BioCode. Interactions of organisms A food web , a generalization of the foo...

Blood

...n receiving a blood transfusion must have a blood type compatible with that of the donor. Blood is an important vector of infection. AIDS , the virus of which, HIV , is transmitted through contact between blood, semen , or the bodily secretions of an infected person. Hepatitis B and C are tra...

Cytotoxic T cell

...of white blood cell ) which has on its surface antigen receptors that can bind to fragments of antigens displayed by the Class I MHC molecules of virus infected somatic cells and tumor cells. Once activated by a MHC-antigen complex, T C cells release the protein perforin , which forms pores i...

Defective interfering particle

... Defective interfering particles ( DIPs ) are virus particles that are missing part or all of their genome . Because of these...tead, they depend on coinfection with a suitable helper virus. The helper virus provides the gene functions that are absent from the DIPs. ...

Diabetes mellitus

... to reduce insulin production. The autoimmune attack may be triggered by reaction to an infection, for example by one of the viruses of the Coxsackie virus family. A subtype of type 1 (identifiable by the presence of antibodies against beta cells) develops slowly and so is often confused with Type 2. In ...

Ebola

... Reston ebolavirus Sudan ebolavirus Zaire virus Ebola hæmorrhagic fever (EHF — alte... humans and some primates caused by the Ebola virus . Ebola was first discovered in 1976 , and sinc... showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 The Ebola virus 1.1 Structure 1.2 Ebola...

Edward Jenner

...is work was published as "An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae, a Disease Known by the Name of Cow Pox" in 1798 . The term virus was introduced in the work aforementioned. Jenner realised the long-term implications of vaccination, and looked forward to the day when smallpox wo...

Flaviviridae

...Genus Flavivirus (type species Yellow fever virus , others include West Nile virus ) Genus Hepacivirus (type species Hepatitis C virus ) Genus Pestivirus (type species Bovine vira...

Foot and mouth disease

...mouth disease tends to occur locally, that is, the virus is passed on to susceptible animals through direct...containing infected animal products can harbor the virus as well. Cows can also catch FMD from the semen o...id acid, the viral genetic material). When such a virus comes in contact with a host cell, it binds to a r...

Gene

...5 –10 7 Mycoplasma genitalium 500 580,000 DNA virus 10–900 5,000–800,000 RNA virus 1–25 1,000–23,000 Viroid 0–1 ~500 ...

Gene therapy

...o the instructions producing the components of the virus itself, viruses can carry additional genes conta...virus, and infect that patient with the virus, the virus will spread the missing gene in all the cells of t...s process is done by another enzyme carried in the virus called integrase . Now that the genetic materia...

Genome project

...al , a plant , a fungus , a bacterium , an archaean , a protist or a virus ), that is, the complete set of genes caried by this living being or virus.... Zea mays Maize (or corn) Escherichia coli bacterium E.coli SARS virus Arbacia punctulata the purple-spined sea urchin Caenorhabditis ...

Hepadnaviridae

...included here: Genus Orthohepadnavirus ; type species: Hepatitis B virus Genus Avihepadnavirus ; type species: Duck hepatitis B virus Hepadnaviruses have very small genomes of circular, partially doub...

Hepatitis B

...s B will be infected through sexual contact. The virus that causes hepatitis B is a member of the Hepadn...losing a circular, double-stranded DNA genome. The virus is unique amongst the DNA viruses in that it uses ...h treatment, a person's likelihood of clearing the virus with treatment, a person's risk for developing com...

Hershey-Chase experiment

...fred Hershey and Martha Chase that identified DNA to be the genetic material of phages and, ultimately, of all organisms. A phage is a small virus that infects bacteria . It consists of a protein coat that encloses the genetic material. When a phage infects a bacterium, it inserts its genetic...

Immune system

...rouble destroying pathogens, is an example of the former. AIDS ("Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome"), an infectious disease , caused by the HIV virus that destroys CD4 + T cells, is an example of the latter. Immunosuppressive medication intentionally induces an immunodeficiency in order to prevent ...

Immunology

...sthma and allergies ) or responds too intensively. The most well-known disease that affects the immune system itself is AIDS , caused by the HIV virus . AIDS is an immunodeficiency characterized by the lack of CD4+ ("helper") T cells and macrophages , which are destroyed by the HIV virus. Clinic...

Lipase

...einschmidt, and M. Hallek. 2002. The VP1 capsid protein of adeno-associated virus type 2 is carrying a phospholipase A2 domain required for virus infectivity. J Gen Virol 83:973-8. Goni FM, Alonso A. 2002 Sphingomyelina...

Louis Pasteur

...ially weakened diseases the generic name of vaccines , to honour Jenner's discovery. Pasteur produced the first vaccine for rabies by growing the virus in rabbits and then weakening it by drying the affected nerve tissue. This vaccine was first used on 9-year old Joseph Meister on July 6 , 1885 a...

Lytic cycle

...is a three-stage process. Infection When a virus infects a cell, it first binds with the cell memb...ng receptor molecules on the virus's surface. The virus then injects its genetic material, which can be ei...into mRNA. Replication and lysis After many virus copies are made, they are assembled into complete ...

Max Delbr

...do. In 1941, he married Mary Bruce, with whom he had four children. In 1942, he and Salvador Luria demonstrated that bacterial resistance to virus infection is caused by random mutation and not adaptive change. For that, they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1969 , ...

Outbreak

... virus outbreaks occur when a virus bypasses infection control measures and a relativ...s a branch of epidemiology and usually refers to virus outbreaks that make people, animals, or plants sic...

Phage

... A phage (also called bacteriophage ) (in Greek phageton = food/consumption) is a small virus that infects only bacteria . Like viruses that infect eukaryotes , phages consist of an outer protein hull and the enclosed genetic material ...

Prokaryote

.... See also Monera - previously Prokaryota were a Kingdom with divisions of eubacteria and archaebacteria. nanobacteria nanobe virus prions eukaryote protists ...

Proteome

..."proteome" has also been used to refer to the collection of proteins in certain sub-cellular biological systems. For example, all of the proteins in a virus can be called a viral proteome. The proteome is larger than the genome , expecially in eukaryotes , in the sense there are more proteins than g...

Retrovirus

... Lentivirus Spumavirus A retrovirus is a virus which has a genome consisting of two identical ...sertion by integrase into the host's genome. The virus itself is just a storage form for its nucleic acid... "proofreading" of DNA transcription, this kind of virus mutates very often. This enables the...

Semen

... is in itself harmless on the skin or if swallowed. However, semen can be the vehicle for many sexually transmitted diseases , including HIV , the virus that causes AIDS . It is also hypothesized that components of semen, such as the spermatozoa as well as the seminal plasma, can cause immunosuppress...
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