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The in Biological Definition

Abiogenesis

... Abiogenesis , in its most general sense, is the hypothetical generation of life from non-living matter. Today, the term is primarily used in the context of biology and...

Absorption spectrum

... An absorption spectrum is a diagram depicting the wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation absor...a material, usually a gas . It can be regarded as the opposite to an emission spectrum , which is a depiction of the specific wavelengths emitted by a material. Let ...

Coenzyme A

...m in areas such as fatty acid oxidization and the citric acid cycle . Its main function is to carr...Acetyl-CoA is an important molecule itself. It is the precursor to HMG CoA, which is a vital component i...nd ketone synthesis. Furthermore, it contributes the acetyl group to acetylcholine ;...

Actin

...actin filaments (or microfilaments ), which like the other two components of the cellular cytoskeleton form a three-dimensional n...l . Actin filaments provide mechanical support for the cell, determine...

Acrosome

... In sperm cells of many higher animals, the acrosome develops over the anterior half of its head. It is a cap-like structure derived from the Golgi apparatus . In Eutherian mammals , acro...

Acrosome

... In sperm cells of many higher animals, the acrosome develops over the anterior half of its head. It is a cap-like structure derived from the Golgi apparatus . In Eutherian mammals , acro...

Activation energy

... the activation energy in chemistry is the energy needed by a system to initiate a particul...process. Activation energy is often used to denote the minimum energy needed for a specific chemical rea...

Active site

... the active site of an enzyme is the binding site where catalysis occurs. the structure and chemical properties of...

Active transport

... Active transport is the mediated transport of biochemicals , and other ...al gradient ). This is achieved by either altering the affinity of the binding site or altering...

Adaptive radiation

... Adaptive radiation describes the rapid speciation of a single or a few species ...ronment that was unreachable before. For example, the Darwin's finches on the Galapagos islands developed from a single specie...

Adenosine triphosphate

... For other uses of the initials ATP, see ATP (disambiguation) Adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) is the nucleotide known in biochemistry as the " molecular currency" of intracellular energy t...

ADP

... adenosine diphosphate AOLserver Dynamic Pages , which are web server extensions designed to return dynamically created documents based on the TCL computer programming language using AOLserver . ...

Aerobic

... Aerobic is an adjective that means "requiring air " (where "air" usually means oxygen ). the opposite of aerobic is anaerobic . See also: Aerobic exercise Aerobic glycolysis Aerobic metabolism Aerobic organism Aerob...

Albinism

...condition resulting in a lack of pigmentation in the eyes, skin and hair. It is an inherited condition arising from the combination of recessive genes passed from both ...itivity in eyesight and skin usually result from the condition. This article is intended to cover mainl...

Affinity chromatography

...capability of gel permeation chromatography with the ability to design a stationary phase that revers...rom a mixture into a buffering solution. Reduce the amount of a molecule in a mixture. Content...hy Protocols General Procedure Usually the starting point is an undefined heterogeneous group...

Alcohol

...(see alcoholic beverage ). This sense underlies the term alcoholism ( addiction to alcohol). Other ...fying adjective, as in isopropyl alcohol or by the suffix -ol , as in isopropanol . In chemistry... bound to other hydrogen and/or carbon atoms. the general formula for a simple alcohol containing no...

Albumin

... is a blood plasma protein that is produced in the liver and forms a large proportion of all plasma protein. It is also found in egg white . the normal range of albumin concentrations in human...s globulin . Albumin is essential for maintaining the oncotic pressure needed for proper distribution ...

Alexander Fleming

... 6 , 1881 – March 11 , 1955 ) discovered the antibiotic substance lysozyme and isolated the antibiotic substance penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum . Biography ...

Allele

...le is any one of a number of alternative forms of the same gene occupying a given locus (position) on a chromosome . An example is the gene for blossom color in many species of flower - a single gene controls the color of...

Alfred Russel Wallace

... 1 Early life 2 Exploration and study of the natural world 3 Theory of evolution 4 Religious views, and application of the theory to mankind 5 Precursor of ecology, and...Wallace was born at Usk , Monmouthshire . He was the eighth of nine children of Thomas Vere Wallace and...

Allostery

... its activity or efficiency changes in response to the binding of an effector molecule at a so-called... are referred to as allosteric activation , while the opposite is called allosteric inhibition . "Allostery" is derived from the Greek "other site", referring to...

Alga

... the algae (singular is alga ) comprise several diff...garded as simple plants , and some are related to the higher plants . Others represent independent lin...otozoa in that they are photoautotrophic . Thus, the algae are no longer considered a natural grouping,...

Allele frequency

...opulation genetics that is used in characterizing the genetic diversity of a species population , or equivalently the richness of its gene pool . Allele frequency is d...in each of their somatic cells (e.g. two loci in the cells of diploid species, which contain two sets...

Allostery

... its activity or efficiency changes in response to the binding of an effector molecule at a so-called... are referred to as allosteric activation , while the opposite is called allosteric inhibition . "Allostery" is derived from the Greek "other site", referring to...

Alpha helix

... In proteins , the α helix is a major structural motif in se...ert Corey , and Herman Branson in 1951 based on the known crystal structures of amino acids and p... Pauling's prediction of planar peptide bonds . the amino acids in an α helix are arranged in a ...

Alternative splicing

... Alternative splicing is the process that occurs in eukaryotes in which the splicing process of a pre-mRNA can lead to dif...ave adapted to this biochemical process when using the protein biosynthesis apparatus. When...

Amine

...es are organic compounds containing nitrogen as the key atom in the amine functional group. Amines have structures re...are replaced by alkyl groups or other groups where the nitrogen is bonded to a carbon atom in...

Ames test

... the Ames test is a biological assay used in genetic...is said to be mutagenic if it causes a change in the DNA (deoxyriboneucleic acid) of a living cell or organism. the test is named after its inventor, Bruce Ames . ...

Anabolism

... Anabolism is the aspect of metabolism that is characterized by gr...ay of categorizing metabolic processes, whether at the cellular , organ or organism level is as anaboli...ng off catabolic processes and vice versa. Most of the known signals are hormones of various types. En...

Amino acid

...r to alpha amino acids: those amino acids in which the amino and carboxylate functionalities are attached to the same carbon . Amino acid residue is what is ...e a water molecule has been lost (an H+ from the nitrogenous side and an OH- from...

Anatomy

... . It is a love sonnet dedicated to describing the parts of a lover 's anatomy, usually female . Anatomical drawing of the human muscles from the Encyclopdie . Anatomy (from...

AMP

... the three-letter abbreviation AMP can refer to the following: In biology , the nucleotide adenosine monophosphate As a fla...

Anaerobic

...ally means without air , as opposed to aerobic . the presence or absence of air, or more precisely the presence or absence of oxygen in the air, affects various chemical and biological react...

Animal

...s are a major group of organisms , classified as the kingdom Animalia or Metazoa. In general they ar...s of metamorphosis later on. Aristotle divided the living world between animals and plants , and this was followed by Carolus Linnaeus in the first hierarchial classification. Since then biol...

Anaphase

...p and φάσις = stage) is the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes ...arate. Each chromatid moves to opposite poles of the cell (opposite ends of the nuclear spindle ). Anaphase is preceded by meta...

Andrew Huxley

...ritish physiologist and biophysicist , who won the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work with Alan Lloyd Hodgkin on the basis of nerve " action potentials ," the electrical impulses that enable...

Antibiotic

... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria . Antibiotics are one class of...-parasitic drugs. They are relatively harmless to the host, and therefore can be used to treat infections . the term originally described only those formulations ...

Antibiotic resistance

... Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic . Antibiotic resistance ...ation or plasmid exchange between bacteria of the same species . If a bacterium carries several res...

Anticodon

..., including RNA translation . It is, specifically, the group of nucleotides on a strand of tRNA that is... strand of mRNA . See also protein synthesis . the first base on the anticodon can be modified to another nucleotide su...

Antibody

... An antibody is a protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign...w","hide") 1 Definition 2 Structure of the antibody 3 Isotypes 3.1 IgG 3.2 IgA... 3.4 IgD 3.5 IgE 4 Function 4.1 the humoral immune response 5 Medical applicat...
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