The endomembrane system
is the system
of internal membranes within eukaryotic cells that divide the cell into functional and structural compartments, or organelles . Prokaryotes do not have an endomembrane system
and thus lack most organelles.
The endomembrane system
also provides a t...
The immune system
is the collection of organs and tissues involved in the adaptive defense of a body against foreign biological material. It may be broken down into the adaptive immune system
(only found in vertebrates  ), composed of four lymphoid organs ( thymus , lymph nodes , spleen an...
The limbic system
is a group of brain structures that are involved in various emotions such as aggression , fear , pleasure and also in the formation of memory . The limbic system
affects the endocrine system
and the autonomic nervous system
. It consists of several subcortical str...
The nervous system
of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles , monitors the organs , constructs and processes input from the senses , and initiates actions . (see Central Nervous System
In animals with brains , the nervous system
also generates and conducts thoughts and e...
The vestibular system
, or balance system
, is the sensory system
that provides the dominant input about our movement and orientation in
space. Together with the cochlea, the auditory organ, it is situated in the
vestibulum in the inner ear (Figure 1). As our movements consist of
... The activation energy in chemistry is the energy needed by a system
to initiate a particular process. Activation energy is often used to denote...emperature, because temperature is a measure of the average energy of the system
- individual molecules can have more or less energy than the average. Incre...
...rst a description of the structures of an organ or system
(such as nerves , arteries , heart , and so for...s built.
Major body systems:
...nimals have bodies differentiated into separate tissues . These include muscles , which are able to contract and control locomotion, and a nervous system
, which sends and processes signals. There is also typically an internal digestive chamber, with one or two openings. Animals with this sort of orga...
... on the basis of nerve " action potentials ," the electrical impulses that enable the activity of an organism to be coordinated by a central nervous system
. Hodgkin and Huxley shared the prize that year with John Carew Eccles , who was cited for research on synapses . Hodgkin and Huxley's findings led ...
... An antibody is a protein used by the immune system
to identify and neutralize foreign objects like ...mbinations. The main reason that the human immune system
is capable of binding so many antigens is the vari...arate gene for each possible antigen, the immune system
would require many more genes than exist in the g...
... strains of influenza combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two original strains. Because the human immune system
has difficulty recognizing the new influenza strain, it may be highly dangerous.
Antigenic shift is contrasted with antigenic drift which is th...
... tissue or from a cell that is part of the immune system
If a cell's capability of apoptosis is damage...le, as part of the hijacking of the cell's genetic system
carried out by human papillomaviruses (HPV), a g... and attack healthy body cells. The way the immune system
regulates this process is by "deleting" both the i...
... consisting of a "head" and "tail" boxcar could use the simple rules of the system
to consistently create new "organisms" identical to itself, so long as ther...n we say that a system, or a subsystem, is alive?"
"What is the smallest system
that we can consider alive?"
"Why is nature able to achieve an open-ende...
...ect the primary transmission lines of the nervous system
, and as bundles they help make up nerves . Indiv...drocytes insulating those of the central nervous system
. Along myelinated nerve fibers, gaps in the shea...of the first intracellular recordings in a nervous system
were made in the late 1930's by K. Cole and H. Cur...
...xpression on the inactive X-chromosome and to bring about its compaction to form the Barr body.
Lyon hypothesis .
...tae -- Animalia
However, this five-kingdom system
is now considered by many to be outdated. More mod...lternatives generally begin with the three-domain system
Archaea (originally Archaebacteria) -- Ba...a , archaea , and eukaryotes (see Three domain system
Homeostasis: adapting to change
...ctive. The loss of a species is thus likely to decreases the ability of the system
to maintain itself or to recover from damage or disturbance. Just like a sp...d.
Biodiversity: time and space
Biodiversity is not static: it is a system
in constant evolution, from a species, as well as from an individual organ...
... Barbiturates are drugs that acts as central nervous system
(CNS) depressants , and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia . Some also are used as anti...
...ts that move past each other and change the size of the cell.
Nervous tissue - cells forming the brain , spinal cord and peripheral nervous system
Examples of tissue in other multicellular organisms are vascular tissue in plants , such as xylem and phloem . Plant tissues are categori...
...ts, and contains various components of the immune system
defending the body against infection . Hormones...to the heart through the veins .
See circulatory system
for a more detailed description of this circulati...ls or leukocytes (3.0%), are part of the immune system
; they destroy infectious agents.
...have been extenisvely used as pollution indicators
So in many different ways, plants can act a bit like the ' miners canary ', an early warning system
alerting us to important changes in our environment. In addition to these practical and scientific reasons, plants are extremely valuable as recreat...
...phalon , is the supervisory center of the nervous system
. Although the brain is usually cited as the super...so be used for the invertebrate central nervous system
. In most animals, the brain is located in the he...ure known as neocortex .
The meninges are the system
of membranes that separate the skull from the brai...
...ildren occurs during the first year of life. Neuroblastoma is the most common infant malignancy, followed by the leukemias and the central nervous system
cancers. Female infants and male infants have essentially the same overall cancer incidence rates, but white infants have substantially higher cancer ...
... This article deals with meat-eating animals. The Federal Bureau of Investigation has an e-mail tapping system
named Carnivore . There also is a thrash metal band from New York named Carnivore .
Carnivores are animals that eat a diet consisting...
...anged in a simple and orderly manner. Although the system
now known as binomial nomenclature was develope...hat became known as the Linnaean taxonomy : the system
of scientific classification now widely used in the biological sciences .
The Linnaean system
classified living things within a hierarchy , sta...
...If cartilage is transformed to bone, the perichondrium becomes the periosteum.
Growth / Development
Most of the skeletal system
is derived from mesoderm tissue. Chondrification is the process in which cartilage is formed from condensed mesenchyme tissue, which differentia...
...formed from a parental cell. Typical stem cells reproduce, double in size, then reproduce again. Most Cytosolic contents such as the endomembrane system
and the cytoplasm easily scale to larger sizes in larger cells. If a cell becomes too large, the normal cellular amount of DNA may not be adequat...
...s , but the inner membrane is highly specialised with transport proteins .
Within the inner membrane, in the region called the stroma , there is a system
of interconecting flattened membrane compartments, called the lamellae , or thylakoid membrane . These are sites of light absorption and ATP s...
... a detailed graphical display of all human chromosomes and the diseases annotated at the correct spot at  .
XY sex-determination system
What Can Our Chromosomes Tell Us? ,an accessible and comprehensive look at chromosomes, from the Univer...
... solvent , through the "stationary phase." The stationary phase retards the passage of the components of the sample. When components pass through the system
at different rates they become separated in time, like runners in a marathon. Ideally, each component has a characteristic time of passage through th...
...nce the 1960s, called cladism or cladistic taxonomy , has been to require taxa to be clades. In other words cladists argue that the classification system
should be reformed to eliminate all non-clades. In contrast, other evolutionary taxonomists insist that groups reflect phylogenies and often make u...
...ts of some few beings which lived long before the first bed of the Silurian system
was deposited, they seem to me to become ennobled."
The famous closing ... ( UCD ) for all bacteria , archaea , and eukaryotes (see Three domain system
). Analysis of the small differences in the genetic code has also provided ...
Computed axial tomography
...3 Diagnostic use
3.1 Cranial CT
3.2 Chest CT
3.3 Abdominal and pelvic CT
4 See also
The CT system
was invented in 1972 by Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield of EMI Central Research Laboratories (now Sensura  owned by Creative Technology Ltd.) us...
...iety or nation.
Culture is a part of the social system
and hierarchically equal to an economic system
, political system
, or legal...
...orm a helical network beneath the cell membrane that guides the proteins involved in cell wall biosynthesis .
Some plasmids encode a partitioning system
that involves an actin-like protein ParM . Filaments of ParM exhibit dynamic instability , and may partition plasmid DNA into the dividing daughter ce...
...oimmune disorder , in which the body's own immune system
attacks the beta cells in the Islets of Langerha... sympathetic activation of the autonomic nervous system
- they may experience feelings similar to dread an...older style (ie, optical color sensing) monitoring system
Prolonged and elevated levels of glucose in t...
... Digestion usually involves mechanical manipulation and chemical action. In most vertebrates , digestion is a multi-stage process in the digestive system
, following ingestion of the raw materials, most often other organisms. The process of ingestion usually involves some type of mechanical manipulat...
2.1.1 Diffusion in the respiratory system
2.1.2 Facilitated diffusion
2.1.3 Net flux ... in cell biology
Diffusion in the respiratory system
In mammalian lungs , a process of diffusion ta...wnian motion
...nferior most of the time, special adjustments must be made to the curriculum. Some European countries such as Germany and Denmark advise a two-teacher system
where the second teacher takes over a group of disabled children within the class. A popular alternative is cooperation between special education sch...
Traditional Chinese medicine
United Nations Drug Control A critical review of the United Nations drug control system
Dutch Jellinek clinic Shows the micro biological effect of several kinds of drugs on brain cells, using flash animation...