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Genes in Biological Definition

Albinism

...ir. It is an inherited condition arising from the combination of recessive genes passed from both parents of an individual. A variety of problems with phot... making the usual amounts of a pigment called melanin . There are many genes which are now scientifically proven to be associated with albinism (or bett...

Alternative splicing

...uced, given a DNA sequence and pre-mRNA. (This does not necessarily negate the central dogma of genetics which is about the flow of information from genes to proteins). Since the ways of regulation are inherited, the interpretation of a mutation may be changed. It has been proposed that for eukary...

Antibiotic

...ancomycin useful for treatment. The situation is worsened by the fact that genes coding for antibiotic resistance can be transferred between bacteria, makin... an incredibly minimal intracellular parasite, being stripped down to a few genes worth of DNA or RNA and the minimal molecular equipment needed to enter...

Antibody

...vents know as somatic recombination. This is when genes are selected (variable (V), diversity (D) and join...pecifically, it is the area where these V, D and J genes are found - otherwise known as the complementarity...antigen, the immune system would require many more genes than exist in the genome . Instead, as Susumu To...

Apoptosis

...factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), which induces the expression of genes that play an important role in diverse biological processes, including cell...duate students Hilary Ellis and Chand Desai had made the first discovery of genes that encode apoptosis-inducing proteins: ced-3 and ced-4 . Ron Ellis ...

Arabidopsis

...haliana is used to study agronomic crops. The genome of Arabidopsis , consisting of five chromosomes , has been sequenced. There are 30644 known genes in the Arabidopsis genome. Arabidopsis has been used extensively in the study of the genetic basis of phototropism, chloroplast alignment, and...

Archaea

...eukaryotes closer to Eurarchaeota than Crenarchaeota are, although the membrane chemistry suggests otherwise. However, the discovery of archaean-like genes in certain bacteria , such as Thermotoga , makes their relationship difficult to determine. Some have suggested that eukaryotes arose through fusio...

Bacterial conjugation

...ed. Among other genetic information, the F-plasmid carries a tra and a trb locus , which together are about 33 kb long and consist of about 40 genes . The tra locus includes the pilin gene and controlling genes, which together form pili on the cell surface, polymeric proteins that can attac...

Barr body

...tion pattern of female calico cats ; pigmentation genes on the X chromosome are activated in different pat...sidered to be inert, but in fact a small number of genes remain active and expressed in some species. These genes are generally those which are present on the other...

Biology

... similar morphological stages and include similar genes . Evolution: the central principle of biolog...lly by Carl Woese . Trees constructed with other genes are generally similar, although they may place som... the basic structures of living systems: cells , genes etc., a second grouping considers the operation o...

Biodiversity

...ified: genetic diversity - diversity of genes within a species. There is a genetic variability... (richness in the different processes to which the genes ultimately contribute) The lattermost definiti...or geneticists , biodiversity is the diversity of genes and organisms . They study processes such as mut...

Bioinformatics

...ic databases. These data are analyzed to determine genes that code for proteins , as well as regulatory sequences. A comparison of genes within a species or between different species ca... in sequence analysis is the automatic search for genes and regulatory sequences within a genome. Not al...

BLAST

...is related in lineage to a certain protein whose amino-acid sequence I know? Where does the DNA that I've just sequenced come from? What other genes encode proteins that exhibit structures or motifs such as the one I've just determined? BLAST is also often as part of other algorithms that req...

Botany

.... What Mendel learnt from studying plants has had far reaching benefits outside of botany. More recently, Barbara McClintock discovered ' jumping genes ' by studying maize . Although she was not a classical 'botanist' - her work demonstrates the ongoing relevance of studying plants to understand fund...

Cancer

...ivision . Cancer is, ultimately, a disease of genes . Typically, a series of several mutations is re...ss involves both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes . Oncogenes promote cancer when "switched on" by a mutation, whereas tumor suppressor genes prevent cancer unless "switched off" by a mutatio...

Cell nucleus

...egions of DNA which constitute euchromatin contain genes which are frequently expressed by the cell. In ...which constitute heterochromatin generally contain genes which are not expressed by the cell (this type of ...form particular functions, hence different sets of genes are required and expressed. Therefore, the regions...

Cell growth

...tes . Genetic studies of the fruit fly Drosophila have revealed several genes that are required for the formation of multinucleated muscle cells by fusio...tage for sexually reproducing organisms by allowing for new combinations of genes and more efficient evolution . However, in organisms with more than one se...

Centromere

...See also: Genetics -- Cell biology External links Report about Nature Genetics article that centromere of rice genome carries active genes * Science . 2002 Sep 13;297(5588):1818-9. ...

Chromosome

...g, continuous piece of DNA , which contains many genes , regulatory elements and other intervening nuc...somes are highly structured (Fig. 2). For example, genes with similar functions are often kept close togeth...dies . Human chromosome Chromosome genes Bases Determined bases* 1 2968 ...

Classical genetics

...at predate the advent of molecular biology . A key discovery of classical genetics in eukaryotes , was genetic linkage . The observation that some genes do not segregate independently at meiosis , broke the laws of Mendelian inheritance , and provided science with a way to map characteristics to a l...

Cloning

...pplications, such as cloning animals (eg. cattle and horses ), which appears to offer a much faster and more efficient way of propagating desirable genes (as chosen by humans) than traditional breeding . Another application which has recently become feasible is the cloning of pets. The company Genet...

Genetic code

...netics, the stop codons were given names: UAG was amber , UGA was opal , and UAA was ochre . These names were originally the names of the specific genes in which mutation of each of these stop codons was first detected. Translation starts with a chain initiation codon (start codon). But unlike stop c...

Bioinformatics

...ic databases. These data are analyzed to determine genes that code for proteins , as well as regulatory sequences. A comparison of genes within a species or between different species ca... in sequence analysis is the automatic search for genes and regulatory sequences within a genome. Not al...

Chromosomal crossover

...uence of base pairs, the result is an exchange of genes . This outcome is the normal way for crossover to...different loci, the result can be a duplication of genes on one chromosome and a deletion of these on the o...rtment, and reducing the genetic linkage between genes on the same chromosome. The physical basis of cr...

Culture

...t introduced by Richard Dawkins in his 1976 book The Selfish Gene . The idea is that there are units of culture, memes , roughly analogous to genes in evolutionary biology . Although this view has gained some popular currency, anthropologists generally reject it. Culture as values, norms, a...

Cytoskeleton

... MreB and ParM Prokaryotic actin-like proteins, such as MreB , are involved in the maintenance of cell shape. All non-spherical bacteria have genes encoding actin-like proteins, and these proteins form a helical network beneath the cell membrane that guides the proteins involved in cell wall bio...

Developmental biology

...cription factors are the key regulators of which genes are expressed in cells. Transcriptional control i...nds and enzymes such as tampons. One key class of genes that are differentially regulated by transcription factors in different cell types are genes for cell adhesion proteins. Cell adhesion protei...

DNA

... presents a brief and simple overview of DNA. genes can be loosely viewed as the organism's "cookbook"; A strand of DNA contains genes , areas that regulate genes , and areas that either have no function, or a fun...

Down syndrome

...re based on the duplication of the same subset of genes (e.g., various translocations of chromosome 21). ...evere. Trisomy 21 results in over- expression of genes located on chromosome 21. One of these is the su...l for studying the Down syndrome. Ts65Dn mouse has genes on chromosomes 16 that are very similar to the hum...

Drosophila

...uit Flies in Space NASA-supported researchers are going to send fruit flies to the International Space Station to learn what space travel does to the genes of astronauts References Burton, Maurice. "Fruit Fly." International Wildlife Encyclopedia . 2002 ed. Freeman, Scott. Biological Science ...

Escherichia coli

...richia. He told his father-in-law that Escherichia was a king in the Old Testament . External links Encyclopedia of Escherichia coli K12 genes and Metabolism The Presence of Coliform Bacteria in Canadian Pulp and Paper Mill Water Systems - a Cause for Concern? - by Dr. F. Archibald (abst...

Ecological genetics

...ar genetics studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level, ecological genetics (and the... Genetics Cain A.J. and W.B. Provine ( 1992 ). genes and ecology in history. In: R.J. Berry, T.J. Crawford and G.M. Hewitt (eds). genes in Ecology . Blackwell Scientific: Oxford. (Provi...

Morphogenesis

...DNA . These can be coded for by master regulatory genes and either activate or deactivate the transcription of other genes and, in turn, these secondary gene products can regulate the expression of still other genes in a regulatory cascade. Another class of molecule...

Endosymbiont

...as sequenced, analysis uncovered a large number of genes that likely code for amino acid biosynthesis genes...est of known bacterial genomes and have lost many genes that are commonly found in other bacteria. Presumably these genes are not needed in the environment of the host inse...

Endosymbiont

...as sequenced, analysis uncovered a large number of genes that likely code for amino acid biosynthesis genes...est of known bacterial genomes and have lost many genes that are commonly found in other bacteria. Presumably these genes are not needed in the environment of the host inse...

Endosymbiotic theory

...and phylogeny suggests that nuclear DNA contains genes that probably came from the chloroplast. Some genes encoded in the nucleus are transported to the orga...usses theories on how mitochondria and chloroplast genes are transferred into the nucleus, and also what st...

Enhancer

... like a set of transcription factors ) to enhance transcription levels of genes (hence the name) in a gene-cluster. An enhancer does not need to be particularly close to the genes it acts on, but it is on the same chromosome. (An exception to this rule w...

Epigenetics

...w environmental factors affecting a parent can result in changes in the way genes are expressed in the offspring (see Waterland citation). In both cases,... “the branch of biology which studies the causal interactions between genes and their products which bring the phenotype into being”. However th...

Evolution

...theory of inherited characteristics, now called genes . The combination of Darwin's theory of natural se...ally by Carl Woese . Trees constructed with other genes are generally similar, although they may place som...e traced to discrete, persistent entities called genes , encoded in linear molecules called DNA . Tho...

Evolutionary developmental biology

...evelopmental processes evolved. The discovery of genes regulating development in model organisms allowed for comparisons to be made with genes and genetic networks of related organisms. ...velopmental mechanisms which are encoded by those genes has become clearer. Evolutionary developmental bi...
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