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Evolution in Biological Definition

Evolution

Generally, evolution is any process of change over time. In the context of life science , evolution is a change in the traits of living organisms over generations, including the emergence of new species . Since the development of modern genetics in the 1940s , evolution has been def...

Convergent evolution

In evolutionary biology , convergent evolution describes the process whereby organisms not closely related independently acquire similar characteristics while evolving in separate and sometimes varying ecosystems. An example of convergent evolution is the similar nature of the wings of ins...

Experimental evolution

In evolutionary biology , the field of experimental evolution is concerned with testing the theory of evolution in controlled experiments . Evolution can be observed in the laboratory as organisms adapt to new environmental conditions. With modern microbiological tools, it is possible t...

Convergent evolution

In evolutionary biology , convergent evolution describes the process whereby organisms not closely related independently acquire similar characteristics while evolving in separate and sometimes varying ecosystems. An example of convergent evolution is the similar nature of the wings of ins...

Molecular evolution

Molecular evolution is the process of the genetic material in populations of organisms changing over time. The genetic material consists of DNA , long sequences of nucleotides in each individual organism. Because most heritable changes in visible traits are a result of changes in the DNA,...

Neutral theory of molecular evolution

The neutral theory of molecular evolution (also, simply the neutral theory of evolution ) is an influential theory that was introduced with provocative effect by Motoo Kimura in the late 1960s and early 1970s . Although the theory was received by some as an argument against Darwin's the...

Parallel evolution

In evolutionary biology , parallel evolution occurs when two independent species evolve together at the same time in the same ecospace and acquire similar characteristics. A classical example of parallel evolution homoplasy is the contemporaneous evolution of the extinct browsing-horses ...

Virus evolution

Virus evolution is a subfield of evolutionary biology that is specifically concerned with the evolution of viruses . Many viruses , in particular RNA viruses , have fairly high mutation rates (on the order of one point mutation or more per genome per round of replication in RNA viruses) a...

Abiogenesis

...nd, there was a perpetual abiogenetic fount by which the first steps in the evolution of living organisms continued to arise, under suitable conditions, from ino...pher Anaxagoras . Hoyle became a staunch critic of theories of chemical evolution to explain the naturalistic Origin of life . Francis Crick , the dis...

Alfred Russel Wallace

... . Wallace's independent proposal of a theory of evolution by natural selection prompted Charles Darwin ...on and study of the natural world 3 Theory of evolution 4 Religious views, and application of the the... 1869 as The Malay Archipelago . Theory of evolution In 1855 , Wallace published a paper, "On the L...

Allele frequency

... Population genetics studies the different "forces" that might lead to changes in the distribution and frequencies of alleles -- in other words, to evolution . Besides selection, these forces include genetic drift , mutation and migration . Compare genotype frequency . Example If there are ten...

Alternative splicing

...would only be enough for two proteins in the prokaryote way of coding. Others have noted that it is unnecessary to change the DNA of a gene for the evolution of a new protein. Instead, a new way of regulation could lead to the same effect, but leaving the code for the established proteins unharmed. Anot...

Antibiotic resistance

...Prevention 3.2 Vaccines 3.3 Phage therapy 4 See also 5 External links Causes Antibiotic resistance is a consequence of evolution via natural selection . The antibiotic action is an environmental pressure; those bacteria which have a mutation allowing them to survive will live...

Antibody

...N 0534421741 External links Lymphomation: Immunoglobulins How Lymphocytes Produce Antibody PLOS primer: V(D)J Recombination and the evolution of the Adaptive Immune System ...

Archaea

...ory 2 Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya 3 Habitats 4 Form 5 evolution and classification 6 External links 7 References Histo...ynthesis with an electron transport chain, as occurs in other groups. evolution and classification Archaea are divided into two main groups based on rRNA...

Artificial life

... in the journal Nature is evidence that artificial life techniques are becoming more accepted in the mainstream, at least as a method of studying evolution . History and contributions Pre-computer A few inventions of the pre-digital era were early heralds of humankind's fascination with artific...

Reproduction

... offspring per year, a Nile Crocodile (15 years) produces 50, and a fruit fly (10-14 days) produces up to 900. Both strategies can be favoured by evolution : animals with few offspring can spend time nurturing and protecting them, hence greatly decreasing the need to reproduce; on the other hand, animals ...

Biology

... 2.2 Physiology of organisms 2.3 Diversity and evolution of organisms 2.3.1 Classification of life ...e central principle of biology Main article: evolution One of the central, organizing concepts in biol...ended from a common origin through a process of evolution . Indeed, it is one of the reasons that biologica...

Biodiversity

...definitions 2 Origin of life and biodiversity evolution 3 Benefits of biodiversity 3.1 Ecologi...urround them. Origin of life and biodiversity evolution See also biodiversity and evolution Biodiversity found on Earth today is the res...

Bioinformatics

...rotein-protein interactions , and the modeling of evolution . The terms bioinformatics and computational bi...uity of fast computers enable researchers to trace evolution of species by tracing changes in their DNA. CEB re...rough inverse of CEB --- rather than investigating evolution through computer programs, it aims to improve comp...

Botany

... biology . Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines that study the growth , reproduction , metabolism , development , diseases , and evolution of plants . Nearly all the food we eat comes (directly and indirectly) from plants like this American long grain rice. This is one of t...

Brain

...B.W. Conners, and M.A. Paradisa. 2001. Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain. Baltimore: Lippincott. ISBN 0781739446 Butler, Ann B. 2000. "Chordate evolution and the Origin of Craniates: An Old Brain in a New Head." The Anatomical Record. 261:111-125. Martin, John H. 1996. Neuroanatomy: Text and Atlas...

Cancer

...tumor cell does usually not acquire all these properties at once, but its descendant cells are selected to build them. This process is called clonal evolution . A first step in the development of a tumor cell is usually a small change in the DNA, often a point mutation , which leads, among other things, to ...

Carolus Linnaeus

... on his classifications, extending them to the kingdom of animals and the kingdom of minerals. The last strikes us as somewhat odd, but the theory of evolution was still a long time away, and indeed, the Lutheran Linnaeus would have been horrified by it. Linnaeus was only attempting a convenient way of cat...

Cell growth

...mosome (see meiosis for details). Why we have sex Main article: evolution of sex If the type of cell reproduction that uses mitosis can reproduce ...ing organisms by allowing for new combinations of genes and more efficient evolution . However, in organisms with more than one set of chromosomes at the main l...

Charles Darwin

...laid the foundation for both the modern theory of evolution and the principle of common descent by proposin...f Lamarck and Charles' grandfather Erasmus about evolution by acquired characteristics. He joined Grant in pi...is collections. He was convinced by his theory of evolution , but vividly aware that transmutation was associa...

Cladistics

...advanced" to avoid placing value-judgements on the evolution of the character states. Cladistic methods ...iomorphies ( homeoplasies ), caused by convergent evolution (i.e. characters that resemble each other because...ommon ancestry. A well-known example of convergent evolution is wings. Though the wings of birds and insects ma...

Genetic code

...lity to the one used by Earth life, the theory of evolution suggests that the genetic code was established ve...s R.; Lesk, Arthur M.; and Singh, Mona. (2002). evolution of Amino Acid Frequencies in Proteins Over Deep Ti...ds into the Genetic Code . Molecular Biology and evolution 19 , 1645-1655. External links Online D...

Bioinformatics

...rotein-protein interactions , and the modeling of evolution . The terms bioinformatics and computational bi...uity of fast computers enable researchers to trace evolution of species by tracing changes in their DNA. CEB re...rough inverse of CEB --- rather than investigating evolution through computer programs, it aims to improve comp...

Chromosomal crossover

...ssover can create duplicate genes. Any pair of homologous chromosomes may be expected to cross over three or four times during meiosis. This aids evolution by increasing independent assortment, and reducing the genetic linkage between genes on the same chromosome. The physical basis of crossing over ...

Culture

... variety of societies. Attentive to the theory of evolution , they assumed that all human beings are equally e...volution. They were also wary of using biological evolution to explain differences between specific cultures -...ized forms of, racism . They believed biological evolution would produce a most inclusive notion of culture, ...

Digital organism

...used as a tool to study the dynamics of Darwinian evolution , and to test or verify specific hypotheses or ma...core world. However, Rasmussen did not observe the evolution of complex and stable programs. It turned out that...ology of digital organisms. Trends in Ecology and evolution 17 , 528-532. ...

Morphogenesis

...is can also be used to describe the development of unicellular life forms that do not have an embryonic stage in their life cycle, or to refer to the evolution of a body structure within a taxonomic group . Morphogenetic responses may be induced in organisms by hormones , or by environmental chemicals rang...

Endosymbiont

...onts that focuses on genetic issues. Jennifer J. Wernegreen (2002), Genome evolution in bacterial endosymbionts of insects, Nature Reviews Genetics , 3, pp. 85...egraded, in a freely-available journal. Nancy A. Moran (1996), Accelerated evolution and Muller’s ratchet in endosymbiotic bacteria, Proceedings of the ...

Endosymbiont

...onts that focuses on genetic issues. Jennifer J. Wernegreen (2002), Genome evolution in bacterial endosymbionts of insects, Nature Reviews Genetics , 3, pp. 85...egraded, in a freely-available journal. Nancy A. Moran (1996), Accelerated evolution and Muller’s ratchet in endosymbiotic bacteria, Proceedings of the ...

Endosymbiotic theory

...nn Margulis . In her 1981 work Symbiosis in Cell evolution she argued that eukaryotic cells originated as co...ng" (i.e., by cooperation), and Darwin's notion of evolution driven by competition is incomplete. However, oth...70s). Related articles Symbiogenesis evolution of flagella (Discusses the endosymbiont theory of...

Enzyme

...ency of a mutation which would produce a nonfunctional active region is proportional to the length of the chain separating the amino acids involved, evolution works against having the amino acids from an active region widely dispersed, instead tending to keep the amino acids involved in each active region co...

Epigenetics

...t also because various theories of epigenetic development, inheritance, and evolution have been proposed (see Historical notes below). Contents showTo...ing of epigenetic inheritance are reminiscent of Lamarck 's ideas about evolution . See also Epigenetic inheritance Molecular biology ...

Ernst Haeckel

... psychology as a branch of physiology . He also proposed many now ubiquitous terms including " phylum " and " ecology ." His chief interests lay in evolution and life development processes in general, including development of nonrandom form, which culminated in the beautifully illustrated Kunstformen der ...

Eugenics

...actices along the lines of new knowledge about the evolution of man and animals provided by the theory of his c...d Spring Harbor . Here he began experimenting with evolution of plants and animals. In 1904, Davenport received...cies seem real, just as Darwin's initial theory of evolution did in the 1860s, and the rediscovery of Mendel's...
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