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End in Biological Definition

Sticky end/blunt end

In biology , sticky end and blunt end are the two possible configurations resulting from the breaking of double-stranded DNA . DNA exhibits a stabilizing interaction between complementary base pairs , providing specificity to the pairing of two strands of DNA. If two complementary strand...

C-terminal end

The C-terminal end refers to the extremity of a protein or polypeptide terminated by an amino acid with a free carboxyl group (COOH). See also N-terminal end . ...

N-terminal end

The N-terminal end refers to the extremity of a protein or polypeptide terminated by an amino acid with a free amine group (NH 2 ). See also C-terminal end . ...

Actin

...les , actin filaments are polar, with the plus (+) end elongating approximately 10 times faster than the ...the filament. ADP-actin dissociates from the minus end and the increase in ADP-actin stimulates the excha...its and promotes their dissociation from the minus end and prevents their reassembly. The protein profili...

Albinism

...re In Jamaica , albinos have long been denigrated and regarded as cursed. In recent times, the albino dancehall singer Yellowman has helped to end this perception. See also: List of albinos Albinism in animals Albinism is not restricted to the human species—other animals also c...

Alpha helix

...has a buildup of positive charge at the N-terminal end and negative charge at the C-terminal end which is a destabilizing influence. As a result, α helices are often capped at the N-terminal end by a negatively charged amino acid (like glutam...

Anaphase

... separate. Each chromatid moves to opposite poles of the cell (opposite ends of the nuclear spindle ). Anaphase is preceded by metaphase , by the end of which fully condensed sister chromatids are arranged in pairs, their centromeres lying along a surface known as the metaphase plate. Spindle fibres...

Antibody

...d an Fc ( f ragment c rystallizable) fragment. Each half of the forked end of the "Y" shaped monomer is called the Fab fragment. It is composed of one...chain, which together shape the antigen binding site at the amino terminal end of the monomer. The two variable domains bind the antigens they are specif...

Apoptosis

... from fertilized eggs to fully-developed animals and plants. It has also suggested specific answers to why normal cells carry out apopotosis when they end up outside the places they should be in body tissues. Immune cell regulation B cells and T cells are sophisticated –and very effect...

Artificial life

...ceeded logically from step to step by combining information from the environment and its own programming, and said that natural organisms would in the end be found to follow similar simple rules. He also spoke about the idea of self-replicating machines . He postulated a machine -- a kinematic automat...

Aseptic technique in microbiology

...l on a clean, preferably microbe-free surface with some overhead protection from airborne microbes. The person would start the fire, and move the end of the innoculating loop, in a slow back-and-forth motion , through the top of the blue part of the flame. The person would not allow the loop to t...

Bacterium

...nging genetic material. Although not equivalent to sexual reproduction, the end result is that a bacterium contains a combination of traits from two differ...d in many different ways. Bacteria can have a single polar flagellum at one end of a cell, or they can have clusters of many flagella at one end. Peritri...

Bone

...in body of the bone; region of primary ossification Epiphysis the end regions of the bone; regions of secondary ossification Epiphyseal pl...physes to the diaphysis (adults only) Head the proximal articular end of the bone Neck the region of bone between the Head and the S...

Biopolymer

...ucleic acid sequence is to list the nucleotides as they occur from the 5' end to the 3' end of the polymer chain , where 5' and 3' refer to the numbering of carbons a...

Botany

...molecular , genetic and biochemical level through to organelles , cells , tissues , organs and the biodiversity of whole plants. At the top end of this scale, plants can be studied in populations, communities and ecosystems (as in ecology ). At each of these levels a botanist might be conce...

Carbon fixation

... Calvin cycle in the dark reactions of photosynthesis. These three carbon dioxide molecules undergo the chemical reactions in the Calvin cycle. The end result is that there is a net output of a single G3P ; and in two turns of the Calvin cycle when two G3P are output, then they are combined to form o...

Cell division

...senescent . Senescent cells deteriorate and die, causing the body to age. Cells stop dividing because the telomeres , protective bits of DNA on the end of a chromosome , become shorter with each division and eventually can no longer protect the chromosome. Cancer cells, on the other hand, are "imm...

Cell growth

... During Binary fission and mitosis the duplicated DNA content of the reproducing parental cell is separated into two equal halves that are destined to end up in the two daughter cells. The final part of the cell reproduction process is cell division , when daughter cells physically split apart from a p...

Centriole

... , each arranged at a right angle such that when looking down the tube, one end of the triplet pair points slightly outwards and the other end points slightly inwards. In animal cells as well as certain algae and fun...

Charles Darwin

...so noted that with his theory "progress is no invariable rule." Towards the end of Descent of Man , Darwin said that he believed that man would "sink into...religion than by natural selection. The question would plague him until the end of his life, and he never concluded fully one way or the other about it. ...

Chromosome walking

...y to the unknown sequence, starting with the primer (see PCR ). The new short DNA strand is sequenced using the chain termination method . The end of the sequenced strand is used as a primer for the next part of the long DNA sequence. That way, the short part of the long DNA that is sequenced...

Cisterna

...ns-cisternae (as they move away from the endoplasmic reticulum ). The formation of new cisternae is often called the cis-Golgi network and at the end of the Golgi where transport to other parts of the cell occurs is called the trans-Golgi network. Both are thought to be specialized cisternae leading...

Collagen

...urs in different forms known as types: Type I collagen - This is the most abundant collagen of the human body. It is present in scar tissue , the end product when tissue heals by repair. It is found in tendons and the organic part of bone . Type II collagen - Articular cartilage Type III ...

Chromosomal crossover

...A . Crossover occurs when two chromosomes , normally two homologous instances of the same chromosome, break and then reconnect but to the different end piece. If they break at the same place or locus in the sequence of base pairs, the result is an exchange of genes . This outcome is the normal way...

Culture

...tures. Cultural change can be caused by the environment, inventions and other internal influences, and contact with other cultures. For example, the end of the last ice age helped lead to the invention of agriculture. Some inventions that affected Western culture in the 20th century were the birth c...

Developmental biology

...o tissues , organs and anatomy . Embryology is a subfield, the study of organisms between the one-cell stage (generally, the zygote ) and the end of the embryonic stage, which is not necessarily the beginning of free living. Embryology was originally a more descriptive science until the 20th ...

Diabetes mellitus

...ll blood sample is collected by the patient by self-production using a lancing device (a sterile pointed needle) the blood is usually collected at the end point to a test strip. This test strip contains various chemicals which when the blood is applied creates a small electrical charge between two contac...

Dialysis

...en clamped off and the twist valve on the catheter end is opened. This permits fluid to enter the periton...catheter tip and a protective cap is placed on the end of the catheter. The effluent is inspected after...ss, lightheadedness, and unconsciousness. At the end of the prescribed time, the patient is disconnecte...

DNA

...s the bases it collects from the soup will ideally end up as a complete replica of the original, unless a...o three 'stop' or 'nonsense' codons signifying the end of the coding region. In many species of organ...ts like to note that the juxtaposition of the 3' end of one DNA strand beside the 5' ...

Dynein

...onemal dynein acts to activate a sliding within flagellar microtubules , whereas the cytoplasmic dynein is implicated in moving toward the negative end of a microtubule. See also: Kinesin External links How Cilia and Flagella Work (axonemal dynein) Microtubule Based Movement (cy...

Gel electrophoresis

... components can lead to overlapping bands, or to indistinguishable smears representing multiple unresolved components. Bands in different lanes that end up at the same "height" contain molecules that passed through the gel with the same speed, which usually means they are about the same size. There are...

Morphogenesis

... translated into proteins a Bicoid protein gradient forms at the anterior end of the egg. Nanos protein forms a gradient at the posterior end. The Bicoid...n binds to the hunchback mRNA and blocks its translation in the posterior end of Drosophila embryos. The Bicoid, Hunchback, and Caudal proteins are t...

Warm-blooded

... Plants are normally though of as having the exact same temperature as their surroundings. The skunk cabbage uses chemical means to warm itself at the end of winter. The warming is modest by animal standards, but is enough to enable them to get an early start in the spring. This permits them to start gro...

Endosymbiotic theory

...nd Science, New York, 2002. ISBN 0-8153-3218-1 . (General textbook) Jeffrey L. Blanchard and Michael Lynch (2000), "Organellar genes: why do they end up in the nucleus?", Trends in Genetics , 16 (7), pp. 315-320. (Discusses theories on how mitochondria and chloroplast genes are transferred into ...

Enzyme

...Given a particular starting set of conditions, the end products of a particular reaction (including net e...c individual pathway taken from beginning point to end point. This is required by the Law of Conservatio... (A->B). (2) Sequential feedback inhibition. The end products P 1 and P 2 inhibit the first committed...

Bacterium

...nging genetic material. Although not equivalent to sexual reproduction, the end result is that a bacterium contains a combination of traits from two differ...d in many different ways. Bacteria can have a single polar flagellum at one end of a cell, or they can have clusters of many flagella at one end. Peritri...

Eukaryote

...fficult to interpret. Forms that can be related to modern groups start appearing around 800 million years ago, and most fossil lines are known by the end of the Cambrian , around 500 million years ago. Genetic studies during the 1980s and 1990s left most eukaryotes in an unresolved "crown" group, usu...

Exon

...he final mRNA molecule. In many genes, each exon codes for a specific portion of the complete protein , however, not all exons in a given gene will end up in the final protein due to the process of alternative splicing . Some mRNA transcripts have no exons whatsoever and thus are sometimes referred ...

Experimental evolution

...distress at a temperature of 73 °F, and were certainly not capable of surviving at 158 °F. The organisms Dallinger had in his incubator at the end of the experiment, on the other hand, were perfectly fine at 158 °F. However, these organisms would not grow anymore at the initial 60 °F. Dal...

Extinction

...it had been universally accepted that the extinction of a species meant the end of its time on Earth. However, recent technological advances have encourag... The most recent of these, the K-T extinction 65 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period, is best known for having wiped out the non- fea...
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