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Tag: "why" at biology news

Jump-starting T Cells In Skin Cancer

...s with tumor proteins. How these vaccines work and why they are only effective in some patients remains u... these T cells is a mystery. Equally mysterious is why vaccination against tumor-specific proteins sometimes causes tumor regression without expanding larg...

Dysentery uses 'sword and shield' to cause infection

...e to infect the body so effectively. We have shown why the bacteria can avoid being destroyed by the body's immune responses through the expression of a molecule that acts as a shield on its surface." The researchers found that shigella, the bacteria causing dysentery uses a Type III secretion system to...

Growth in the sea comes down to a struggle for iron

...that date. The question that remains unanswered is why the diatoms showed signs of nutrient stress before the iron and other nutrients were used up. Wells and his colleagues think they may know. For clues, they have looked to a discipline that is far removed from the sea. Soil contains lots of iron, but...

Lack of enzyme turns fat cells into fat burners

... cells of mice into fatburners, explaining in part why the animals can eat more and weigh lessthan their normal counterparts, said Baylor College of Medicineresearchers.The report that appears online today in the Proceedings of the NationalAcademy of Sciences. "Westudied the fat cells in these mice bred...

Poor prenatal nutrition permanently damages function of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas

... Joslin Diabetes Center have discovered one reason why infants with low birth weight have a high potential of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. In studies of mice, the researchers found that poor prenatal nutrition impairs the pancreas's ability to later secrete enough insulin in response to bloo...

Elusive HIV shape change revealed; Key clue to how virus infects cells

... drugs. "The findings also will help us understand why it's so hard to make an HIV vaccine, and will help us start strategizing about new approaches to vaccine development." The studies, performed in the Children's Hospital Boston Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, used the closely related simian immunod...

Genome of deadly amoeba shows surprising complexity, evidence of lateral gene transfer

... evade the human immune system. This could explain why the parasite can stay hidden in the body for years... targets" and also may help researchers understand why the disease hits only a small fraction of those who are hosts to the parasite. "Intestinal infection...

Research advances quest for HIV-1 vaccine

...4E10 and its specific target provides insight into why this particular antibody is so broadly effective, a rare characteristic for HIV discovered thus far. The research is published in the February issue of Immunity. Vaccination has been a successful strategy for protecting humans from many potentially ...

Male circumcision reduces risk of HIV transmission from women to men

...ed men, this new information may help usunderstand why the virus is spreading rapidly in parts of Africa, andhelp define better HIV strategies for prevention in these settings....

Another Look Finds Promising Proteomics Test is Not Biologically Plausible

...rsity of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center detail why an experimental test intended to identify early ovarian cancer from a small sample of blood is unlikely to lead to a reliable clinical test right away. After conducting repeated checks of the data that supported the test’s effectiveness, the researc...

New species from old data

...rsity of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center detail why an experimental test intended to identify early ovarian cancer from a small sample of blood is unlikely to lead to a reliable clinical test right away. After conducting repeated checks of the data that supported the test’s effectiveness, the researc...

Cracking the olfactory code in bees

...rsity of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center detail why an experimental test intended to identify early ovarian cancer from a small sample of blood is unlikely to lead to a reliable clinical test right away. After conducting repeated checks of the data that supported the test’s effectiveness, the researc...

Signaling protein builds bigger, better bones in mice

...rsity of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center detail why an experimental test intended to identify early ovarian cancer from a small sample of blood is unlikely to lead to a reliable clinical test right away. After conducting repeated checks of the data that supported the test’s effectiveness, the researc...

Inflammatory molecules released by pollen trigger allergies

... pollen from unpolluted areas, possibly explaining why allergies are more prevalent in places with high levels of car exhaust emissions. Traidl-Hoffmann and colleagues showed that extracts from birch pollen and other common allergens block the production of a soluble protein by immune cells that normall...

Gene therapy converts dead bone graft to new, living tissue

...clasts dig out the calcium from our bones. This is why doctors encourage post-menopausal women to take calcium supplements, so that the body doesn't raid their bones for the calcium it needs. The process works both ways, fortunately, as another set of cells, called osteoblasts, rebuilds the bone when the...

Jefferson Virologists Coax HIV Out of Hiding

...-7may teach us something,?he says. “We’re not sure why only thesecertain strains are affected. We think we’ve found a new population, anew reservoir of HIV that has not been seen before. It’s probably asub-population of blood cells, lymphocytes not stimulated by IL-2 orOKT3. There could be other reservoi...

ASU researchers finds novel chemistry at work to provide parrot's vibrant red colors

...e we should carefully consider when we think about why parrots are so strikingly colorful," McGraw said. ... choice or competitive ability," he said. "Exactly why they are so uniformly colored remains an interesting mystery to us ?one we want to investigate." "T...

Transport System Smuggles Medicines Into Brain

...e we should carefully consider when we think about why parrots are so strikingly colorful," McGraw said. ... choice or competitive ability," he said. "Exactly why they are so uniformly colored remains an interesting mystery to us ?one we want to investigate." "T...

Same mutation aided evolution in many fish species, Stanford study finds

...to hind fin in body armor. Although it's not clear why losing the armor is a benefit to freshwater fish, Kingsley noted that the unarmored fish are lighter and faster than their more burdened marine cousins. In an effort to learn more about how the armor trait evolves so quickly, Kingsley and his collea...

Studies reveal methods viruses use to sidestep immune system

...ir replication. The researchers also investigated why cells with functioning RIG-I protein still had persistent HCV infection. In a study to appear in PNAS, Dr. Gale and his group found an explanation for HCV's tenaciousness. Once HCV infects the cell, it launches a counterattack against RIG-I, producin...

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