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Wisconsin scientists grow critical nerve cells

...the [embryonic stem cells] to change step by step, where each step has different conditions and a strict window of time," says Zhang. "Otherwise, it just won't work." To differentiate into a functional spinal motor neuron, the stem cells advanced through a series of mini-stages, each requiring a unique gr...

Man and mouse share genome structures

...atterns along equivalent chromosomal regions, even where the underlying DNA sequences are different. Bernstein and Schreiber began to develop the analytical techniques several years earlier, working with the smaller yeast genome. To investigate the much larger human genome, they collaborated with Affymetr...

Adding Radiation Therapy To Chemotherapy Improves Survival In Patients With High-risk Breast Cancer

...hose from other groups, confirm that in situations where residual disease remains, adjuvant chemotherapy alone in high-risk breast cancer patients is suboptimal and that the addition of locoregional radiation therapy is important to achieve the highest cure rate," the authors write. In an editorial, Timot...

Novel Asthma Study Shows Multiple Genetic Input Required; Single-gene Solution Shot Down

...hose from other groups, confirm that in situations where residual disease remains, adjuvant chemotherapy alone in high-risk breast cancer patients is suboptimal and that the addition of locoregional radiation therapy is important to achieve the highest cure rate," the authors write. In an editorial, Timot...

Molecular biology fills gaps in knowledge of bat evolution

.... "The present work advances our understanding of where bats originated, when they diversified and how different bat families are related to each other," Springer said. "It also quantifies the fraction of the fossil record that is missing for bats." The team, using DNA sequencing, analyzed data from port...

UAB scientists discover the origin of a mysterious physical force

...his mysterious force in detail and have discovered where its origins lie. In the same way that a flag flutters in the direction the wind is blowing, at a microscopic level water molecules are gently attracted towards the direction in which an electric field is pointing. However, when the water is in conta...

Researchers discover way to make cells in the eye sensitive to light

...initis pigmentosa is a form ofhereditary blindness where the rods and cones are destroyed, but therest of the eye and retina remains intact. By switching on themelanopsin it could be possible to restore the eyes ability to respondto light.Although making cells in the eye responsive to light is not a cure f...

Quantum Dots Research Leads to New Knowledge about Protein Binding in Plants

..., chemistry and plant biology tounderstand how and where specific proteins act on a pollen tube is onemore step towards a better understanding of the fundamental processesinvolved, namely the network of the signaling process in plantreproduction,?said Ozkan. "A better understanding of the interactionof SCA...

Yellowstone microbes fueled by hydrogen, according to U. of Colorado study

...ters to preserve the microbialcommunity.In springs where there was no sediment, Spear collected samples ofplanktonic organisms by hanging a glass slide in the water and allowingthe microbes to accumulate. "Bacteria are just like us. They like to betogether, they like to be attached to a surface and they li...

New, automated tool successfully classifies and relates proteins in unprecedented way

...rmation is critical to foil a disease like cancer, where you mightwant to identify and disable part of a tumor cell's machinery needed toprocess proteins for cancer growth."Our tool represents a step forward because it is based on standardizedfeatures and not on features chosen by the human eye, which isun...

Controversial drug shown to act on brain protein to cut alcohol use

...by injection ordirectly into the same brain region where GDNF levels were shown toincrease.The research also showed that Ibogaine was quite effective inpreventing relapse, or "falling off the wagon" -- the vulnerability ofrecovered alcoholics or addicts to return to uncontrolled drinking ordrug use when ex...

Neuronal 'traffic jam' marks early Alzheimer's disease

...s disease -- or in disorders such as Down syndrome where beta-APP is overexpressed -- those defects cause early failure in cellular transport," he said. "And those failures then stimulate further production of A-beta peptide, which may further poison the machinery." Goldstein theorized that Alzheimer's di...

Current human embryonic stem cell lines contaminated UCSD/Salk team finds

...ted into cells lining thestomach and colon, organs where consumption of red meat has beenassociated with risk of cancer."Knowing the mechanism that this molecule uses to get into human cellsmay give us clues to possible solutions to the problems that it maycause in various situations," Varki said....

Antarctic ice shelf retreats happened before

... for other studies on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet where scientists have found that a relatively warm current, Circumpolar Deep Water, is causing high melt rates on the underside of an ice shelf in Pine Island Bay*. The gradual removal of this ice shelf may be causing the glaciers inland to flow faster, wh...

Newly-discovered class of genes determines ?and restricts ?stem cell fate

...jority of differentiated cells that make up organs where cancers are found. If this theory is correct, resident stem cells in the skin could be the cells that turn into skin cancers like melanoma. Understanding stem cell biology may therefore be important for developing new therapies for cancer. Adult res...

Tiny particles could solve billion-dollar problem

...olves pumping polluted groundwater to the surface, where it can be exposed to chemical catalysts or microor...icle instead of being locked away inside the metal where they cannot interact with other chemicals. For example, in the bulk palladium, less than 4 percent o...

Plants, animals share molecular growth mechanisms

... the cell and allow it to grow, and they determine where certain structures in a cell are positioned and how plants respond to gravity and light. Szymanski's team used a deformed version of a common research plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, and specifically looked at small, hairlike structures that exist on m...

Researchers Uncover Key Step In Manufacture of Memory Protein

...rmed, it is released to the outside of the neuron, where it binds to receptors on other neurons and stimula...are then transported to the cell’s outer membrane, where they remain until they are ready to be secreted. Once the cell receives an electrical signal from an...

Plants respond similarly to signals from friends, enemies

...e root and form special structures called nodules, where they turn atmospheric nitrogen into usable nitrogen for the plant and, in return, take some of the plant's energy to survive. A similar relationship appeared when Weerasinghe studied the signals between plants and nematodes, even though the nematode ...

The secret to longevity in tubeworms

...n the deep sea cold sediments surrounding the seep where the worm lives. These chemoautotrophs use energy from hydrocarbons to reduce sulfate to sulfide, which L. luymesi absorbs through its unique "roots," extensions of its body that it tunnels into the sediments. However, current measurements of sulfide ...

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