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Carnegie Mellon scientists find key HIV protein makes cell membranes bend more easily

...nutrients. Cells also communicate with one another via small, membrane-bound vesicles that contain proteins or other molecular cargo. When delivering their goods, vesicles from one cell fuse with the outermost membrane of another cell to form a series of hybrid structures called fusion intermediates. Th...

Releasing fish for the future

...oping protocols designed to maximise fish survival via subtle changes to management practices. Owing to bag limits, legal sizes and non-consumptive angling, between 30 and 50% of the total recreational catch is released each year in Australia. This amounts to more than 47 million fish being caught and...

Newly found sensing system enables certain bacteria to resist human immune defenses

...s that can be transmitted to patients in hospitals via contaminated medical implants. Findings by Dr. Otto’s research group are published in the May 29 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. Other well-known types of gram-positive bacteria include agents that cause anthrax, strep th...

Migration alert -- How tumor cells home in on the lymphatic system

...erapies. Scientists know that tumor cells spread via the lymphatic system, but they don’t understand the details of how this deadly migration takes place. In the June 2007 issue of the journal Cancer Cell, EPFL Professor Melody Swartz and postdoctoral researcher Jacqueline Shields provide an explanatio...

Small, self-controlled planes combine plant pathology and engineering

...tinct advantages over a sampling aircraft operated via remote control,” Schmale explained. “First, the autonomous UAVs maintain a very precise sampling path. We can establish a GPS waypoint in the center of an agricultural field, and the autonomous plane can circle around the waypoint at a set altitude, ...

Blood-brain barrier breached by new therapeutic strategy

...rry a strip of therapeutic material into the brain via intravenous administration. Once delivered to the nerve cells of the brain, the strip, called a small interfering RNA (siRNA), was shown to protect mice from infection caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Manjunath N. Swamy, M.D., of th...

Turn-ons and turn-offs for neurons

...pute incoming sensory information and integrate it via distinct brain regions. With 20,000 - 25,000 genes in our genome, most also expressed in neurons, there is now little doubt that neurons respond to challenging environments by adjusting the expression of genes for appropriate brain functions. Stress,...

Genome of Clostridium botulinum reveals the background to world's deadliest toxin

...ime. Occasionally it gets into a living animal, via contaminated food or open wounds, leading to infant botulism or wound botulism, both of which are serious human infections. The host can be quickly overpowered and, in some cases, killed by the toxin, and C. botulinum has a new food source. "Alth...

NASA-funded robotic sub finds bottom of world's deepest sinkhole

... sensors to create maps of the sinkhole’s interior via a technique called simultaneous localization and mapping, or SLAM. Prior to the DEPTHX field experiment, SLAM had been used for navigating in buildings and mines, but had never operated in an underwater environment or with such sparse sensor input. ...

Hearts of male and female rainbow trout are different

...ch like the human heart, receives oxygenated blood via the coronary circulation. Conversely, the endocardium is supplied by only deoxygenated blood returning from the rest of the body. Not surprisingly, the authors expect there to be corresponding layer differences in energy production and function. ...

Newborn neurons like to hang with the 'in' crowd

...chance of error," he adds. Neurons make contact via specialized structures called synapses. As a signal traveling along a nerve branch arrives at the pre-synaptic area, it releases a chemical signal. The signaling molecules travel across the synapse and induce a signal on the neighboring, receiving ne...

Gene mutation linked to cognition is found only in humans

...Variation Society. The journal is available online via Wiley InterScience at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/journal/humanmutation . Led by Dr. Bing Su of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Kunming, China, researchers analyzed the DNA of humans and several species of apes and monkeys. Their previous ...

Risk of lymphoma increases with hepatitis C virus infection

...to person through the exchange of bodily fluids -- via shared needles, open wounds, and sexual contact, among other means. HCV is also known to cause cirrhosis and liver cancer. "Although the risk of developing lymphomas is small, our research suggests that screening of HCV-infected individuals coul...

Toxoplasmosis infection trick revealed by scientists

...for pregnant women, whose foetuses can be infected via the placenta, and those with a weakened immune system, such as people infected with HIV. In severe cases, toxoplasmosis can cause damage to the brain and eyes, and even death Now researchers from London and Geneva have determined, for the first tim...

100 percent of pregnant women have at least one kind of pesticide in their placenta

...s con actividad hormonal (Maternal-child exposure via the placenta to environmental chemical substances with hormonal activity), written by María José López Espinosa, from the Department of Radiology and Physical Medicine of the University of Granada (Universidad de Granada [ http://www.ugr.es ]), analy...

DNA analysis suggests under-reported kills of threatened whales

...l numbers sighted at sea with the numbers reported via bycatch. "This means that there is no accepted estimate of the total abundance of this population," Baker added, "but it seems likely that it is small and declining because of the unregulated exploitation." The study focused on minke whales in...

Studies force new view on biology of flavonoids

...s and vegetables ?is sufficient. Large doses taken via dietary supplements might do no additional good; an apple a day may still be the best bet. A research survey, and updated analysis of how flavonoids work and function in the human body, were recently published in Free Radical Biology and Medicine,...

Chlamydia vaccine a step closer to reality

...accine had been developed it could be administered via a patch, similar to ones used by smokers for nicotine. "Patches are a good way to deliver proteins to a part of the body's immune system and they are also easy and user-friendly." He said with rates of Chlamydia infection in some Australian com...

Molecular differences between early and advanced melanomas could provide new drug targets

... growth melanoma cells into highly invasive tumors via reactive oxygen pathways," says Dr. Arbiser. "This could provide us with promising targets for anti-cancer drug therapy. We will continue to work on refining the exact mechanisms of how Akt influences the aggressive growth of melanomas."...

Infection detectives use disease 'fingerprints' to track common infections in children

...he results from the chip and get the analysis back via the Internet, for example. "Pediatricians understand that this could change the way we do things," said Dr. Ramilo, who leads pediatric infectious disease research at UT Southwestern and Children’s. It could also prove useful for identifying p...

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