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Tag: "vertebrate" at biology news

Genetic tug of war determines sexual differentiation

...Wnt4 develop incomplete testes. This suggests that vertebrate sex determination results from the interplay between these two opposing signals." The researchers published their findings in the May 22, 2006, issue of the journal Public Library of Science-Biology. Their research was supported by the National Inst...

Researchers discover which organs in Antarctic fish produce antifreeze

...ed they had to be produced in the liver, since the vertebrate liver is well known as a source of secreted plasma protein, so there was no reason to think otherwise," said Chi-Hing "Christina" C. Cheng, a professor of animal biology. "It turns out that the liver has no role in the freezing avoidance in these fis...

Scientists reverse evolution

...in jawed fish ?the last common ancestors of modern vertebrate animals ?each Hox gene had split into four, so 13 became 52. Later, duplicate Hox genes either mutated in a way that proved useful, or vanished because they were redundant, so today in humans and other mammals there are 39 instead of 52 Hox genes. ...

Making a face: A new and earlier marker of neural crest development

...ized stages and are a valuable model for examining vertebrate development. While it was known that the ability to form neural crest cells declines after "stage 10," the researchers were seeking the earliest conditions surrounding formation of these important stem cells. "Understanding the origin of neural cre...

Major initiative proposed to address amphibian crisis

...mphibians seem to have been hit the hardest of all vertebrate species," said Andrew Blaustein, a professor of zoology at Oregon State University and one of the pioneers in this field, who first helped document amphibian declines almost 20 years ago. "These are bioindicators that something is wrong with the p...

Species unique to tidal marshes face threats

...her habitats, tidal marshes support few nonaquatic vertebrate species, but their unique characteristics have led to the evolution of species and subspecies that are endemic (found nowhere else). These endemic species and subspecies, which seem to be largely restricted to North America, have adaptations that sui...

Brain region linked to fly slumber

...ay help to throw light on the mechanisms governing vertebrate and invertebrate sleep. In addition to Allada, other authors on the Nature paper are Jena L. Pitman (co-first author), Jermaine J. McGill and Kevin P. Keegan, all from Northwestern University. ...

A new view on Lyme disease: Rodents hold the key to annual risk

...t picks up the pathogen during a blood meal from a vertebrate host. In the eastern and central United States, the spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi infects blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, which feed on a wide variety of birds, lizards, and mammals, including mice, deer, and humans. Since human ris...

Mobile DNA part of evolution's toolbox

...t are almost exactly the same in a wide variety of vertebrate organisms. Haussler and postdoctoral fellow Gill B...ies of the ultraconserved element scattered around vertebrate genomes have changed less than would be expected over evolutionary time, indicating that they are fu...

Common carp sheds new light on surviving in extreme environments

... store in the heart and muscle cells of humans and vertebrate animals - also exists in many other tissues of the...y in the carp's brain, which is the first time any vertebrate animal has been found to possess more than one type of this protein. Professor Cossins explains:...

Steep oxygen decline halted first land colonization by Earth's sea creatures

...again, this time for good. The mysterious lull in vertebrate colonization of land is known as Romer's Gap, named for the Yale University paleontologist, Alfred Romer, who first recognized it. But the term has typically been applied only to pre-dinosaur amphibians, and there has been little understanding of why...

Hard-wiring the fruit fly's visual system

Both vertebrate and fruit fly have so-called visual maps in the br..."There is a genetic component (to formation of the vertebrate visual system)," said Bellen, who is also a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. "The neuro...

West Australian fossil find rewrites land mammal evolution

...mberley has been identified as the missing clue in vertebrate evolution, rewriting a century-old theory on how the first land animals evolved. Monash University PhD students Mr Erich Fitzgerald and Mr Tim Holland were part of the research team, led by Museum Victoria's Head of Science Dr John Long, that made t...

Advance helps explain stem cell behavior

...tely make up all the organs and parts of a living vertebrate animal. The findings were made using mouse embryo... years of evolution, and is largely the same among vertebrate animal species, whether they are fish, horses, mice or humans. Once the process is more fully unde...

Discovery in the evolution of the immune system absorbing cells

...nificant evolutionary success, since nearly 50% of vertebrate species belong to this group and they are constantly in contact with a vast multitude of microorganisms in the water. According to Dr Sunyer, "From a practical perspective, this discovery will be used in the near future to produce a new design of vac...

Cracking the egg

...ssociated with it have remained the same along the vertebrate evolutionary pathway. But at the same time there's evidence of instability in other areas. According to Dr. Evsikov, "There's tantalizing evidence for rapid change in a few critical mammalian genes specifically expressed in eggs. These fast-paced c...

Key to zebrafish heart regeneration uncovered

...enerate damaged heart tissue may be present in all vertebrate species, but that for unknown reasons, mammals have "turned off" this ability over the course of evolution. Zebrafish could provide a model to help researchers find the key to unlocking this dormant regenerative capacity in mammals, and such an advan...

How fish mend a broken heart

...ity to regenerate tissue is a feature shared among vertebrate species, the researchers said. However, particular...n that has occasionally been lost in the course of vertebrate evolution." Poss said. "Thus, most biologists suspect that the machinery to optimize regeneration fr...

Nonvenomous Asian snakes 'borrow' defensive poison from toxic toads

...nse, including milkweed insects and sea slugs. But vertebrate examples of toxin sequestration, especially from vertebrate prey, are rare. "A snake that's dependent on a diet of toads for chemical defense is highly unusual,...

Research project tackles 'regeneration' gap

...ng disciplines, including scientists who study how vertebrate development began millions of years ago as well as scientists who are trying to treat blindness by influencing the activity of stem cells in the human eye. In terms of brain diseases, scientists may look at ways to mobilize and reinforce the body’s o...

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