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Tag: "upstream" at biology news

Swimming 'to the left' gets bacteria upstream, and may promote infection

...ter conditions for multiplying. "We think that upstream swimming of bacteria may be relevant to the transp...s the first time that a natural propensity to swim upstream has been discovered and described in bacteria." To study the hydrodynamics of these bacteria in...

Scientists reveal structure of gateways to gene control

... research had indicated that DNA sequences located upstream of a gene might be a region that controls whether that gene is read or not, but we did not know the architecture of those sequences -- whether they were exposed and therefore ready for work. Now we know that the gateway to transcription is a part of...

Jumping gene could provide non-viral alternative for gene therapy

...veloped leukemia because the virus inserted itself upstream of a cancer-causing gene. "With viruses, you don't have control," says Dr. Kaminski. "People have tried to modify viruses for site-specific integration and have not been very successful. Once they get into the cell, they can insert wherever they wa...

Scientists solve 30-year-old mystery of mutant mouse's kidney woes

...m the plumbing system, and it gets backed up to an upstream location: the kidney," Chen says. Chen plans follow-up studies of aqp2 to determine how important various parts of the protein are to its proper distribution in the kidney collecting duct epithelium. His lab also is looking for other genetic factor...

The secret lives of sea slugs

...harm, as well as crawling aggressively (for slugs) upstream to breed and feed. The observations also correlated with earlier studies suggesting that sea slugs flatten out their bodies to reduce drag when they encounter strong water currents, a behavior that helps them avoid being swept away. At field sites ...

Beaver dams create healthy downstream ecosystems

...ortance of beaver in the valley bottoms beyond the upstream ponds," Westbrook said. "We found that upstream ponds were not the main hydrologic effect of the dams in the Colorado River valley. Instead, the bea...

Cells use mix-and-match approach to tailor regulation of genes

...oteins called transcription factors, which bind to upstream sequences of genes to turn the expression of those genes on or off. Some pharmaceutical companies are also hoping to develop drugs that selectively block the binding of transcription factors as a way to short-circuit the harmful effects of diseases, ...

Case Western Reserve University researchers find protein associated with brain cell death

... was to evaluate potential signaling intermediates upstream from the oxidation, said the researchers. They had an interest in a group of signaling molecules (guanine nucleotides exchange factors) that are known to activate oxidation. Vav was selected from the group for study. The inflammatory response th...

Forsyth scientists gain greater understanding of how embryos differentiate left from right

...hree different vertebrates, reveal mechanisms both upstream and downstream of its activity, and identify a novel role for this important ion transporter. Based on these observations, they proposed a detailed pH- and Vmem-dependent model of the early physiology of left/right patterning. Michael Levin, PhD. is...

The evolution of food plants: Genetic control of grass flower architecture

...f different mutant backgrounds placed ra2 function upstream of other genes that regulate branch formation. The early expression of ra2 suggests that it functions in regulating the patterning of stem cells in axillary meristems. Said Dr. Hake, "we think that ra2 is critical for shaping the initial steps of in...

There's something fishy about human brain evolution

...dges that for the past 20 years he's been swimming upstream when it comes to convincing anthropologists of his position, especially that initial hominid brain expansion happened by chance rather than adaptation. But, he says, the evidence of the importance of key shoreline nutrients to brain development is ...

The brain is broadly wired for reproduction

...barley lectin (BL), a tracer molecule that travels upstream and downstream to connected neurons, and green flu...und that pheromones triggered responses in neurons upstream of GnRH neurons in both odor and pheromone relay areas. "This suggests that there is a redundancy in...

Olfactory system detects pheromones that control reproduction

...uld be introduced into a neuron and infect its way upstream along the network of axons that connect neurons. The virus could also jump the synapses between neurons, as it moved from one neuron to the next. As a result, the researchers could use the pseudorabies virus to obtain a detailed look at all of the ne...

'Perception' gene tracked humanity's evolution, scientists say

... It's the prodynorphin gene's promoter sequence -- upstream DNA that controls how much of the protein is expre... in a stretch of DNA about 68 base pairs in length upstream of prodynorphin, 10 percent of the sequence was different between us and chimps." Hahn said this "...

Pulp mill devastates swans' sanctuary in Chile

...re unable to carry their own weight." Opened just upstream from the nature sanctuary in 2004, the CELCO plant was twice temporarily shut down earlier this year for environmental violations. Residents in Valdivia, 30 miles away, complained of noxious odors from the plant and the WWF mission found the facility...

Study provides insight into cellular defenses against genetic mutation

... premature when it occurs more than 55 nucleotides upstream (toward the 5-prime end) of an exon-exon junction. If these spatial requirements are met, CBP80 interacts with human up-frameshift proteins, factors that come together at exon-exon junction complexes to drive NMD review. The three up-frameshift p...

Modification of program enables prediction of gene transcription

...on's disease, has a second protein segment encoded upstream of the main one. This protein in the so-called untranslated region is involved in regulating the gene. Running the modified TWINSCAN, on both the human and fruit fly genomes, Brent and colleagues predicted about 25,000 transcription-start sites, comp...

Brain size may depend upon how neural cells are cleaved

...oteins -- known as AGS3 and mPins in mammals -- as upstream regulators of G proteins. The researchers' analyses showed that AGS3 is, indeed, expressed in progenitor cells. And when they "silenced" AGS3 expression in embryonic mouse brains, the resulting abnormalities mimicked those produced when Gβγ signalin...

Reversal of role for a viral protein associated with the development of lymphoma

...ion sequentially as an acceptor for splicing to an upstream exon and then as a donor for splicing to the next downstream ratchetting point or exon. As the process goes from ratchetting point to ratchetting point, small signature loops of RNA called lariats are released from the intron. Repeated over and over,...

Carnegie Mellon University research reveals how cells process large genes

...ion sequentially as an acceptor for splicing to an upstream exon and then as a donor for splicing to the next downstream ratchetting point or exon. As the process goes from ratchetting point to ratchetting point, small signature loops of RNA called lariats are released from the intron. Repeated over and over,...

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