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Genetic links could unlock clues to leading cause of blindness

... most people don't even realize something is wrong until they detect changes in their vision. The disease can be controlled, but there is no known way to reverse the vision loss it causes. Knowing more about the earliest predictors of macular degeneration could help doctors treat the disease before extens...

Arthritis: What Wnt wrong?

...y in the progression of arthritis has been lacking until now. Researchers at Shinshu University School of Medicine in Nagano, Japan, examined 19 members of the Wnt gene family to determine exactly which of these genes were involved in arthritic joint disease. This extensive study, performed under the dire...

Motor transport in bio-nano systems

...ms random Brownian motion in the surrounding water until it rebinds to the same or another filament. In order to understand the motor traffic in biological cells and in biomimetic systems, it is necessary to go beyond the single motor level and consider the cooperative behavior of many motors. To obtain a...

Achilles heel of the herpes virus possibly found

...eptibility to many nerve and brain disorders. But until now, scientists haven't fully understood how the h...HSV entry mechanism was tricky and near impossible until Fuller's team discovered a type of pig kidney cell that isn't vulnerable to infection by human herpe...

Scripps research scientists identify infertility molecule

...1.4 in 1970 to nearly 25 in 2000. Many women wait until they are well into their thirties or later before having their first child. In fact, the CDC reports that in 2002, the latest year for which the statistics are available, more than 100,000 women over the age of 40 gave birth. This was the first time ...

Researchers use 3-D imaging system to unveil swimming behavior of microscopic plankton

... long ago but had never been measured in the ocean until now. The results were captured during three experiments lasting several weeks at two sites in the Red Sea's Gulf of Aqaba, near the coral reef of Eilat in Israel and at Ras Burka on the coast of Egypt's Sinai Peninsula. At the sites scuba divers att...

Blink, and the brain misses it

... the brain mechanisms underlying this process have until now remained unclear. As they report this week, Davina Bristow and a team of scientists at University College London led by Dr. Geraint Rees may now have found a reason for why blinks go unnoticed. In their study, the researchers devised a clever wa...

Self-assembled DNA buckyballs for drug delivery

...aced version of buckyballs had not been envisioned until Leonardo da Vinci's illustrations in 1494. Luo added that DNA buckyballs may turn out to have unusual electronic, photonic and mechanical properties, and that because DNA is easily labeled and manipulated, his research group's work offers a way to ...

Novel compounds show promise as safer, more potent insecticides

...and selectively target these receptors in insects, until now. Nihon Nohyaku Co., Ltd., based in Japan, and Bayer CropScience AG in Germany have jointly developed Flubendiamide, the first example of the phthalic acid diamides, a novel class of insecticides that activate the ryanodine receptor. The insectic...

Decisions, decisions: Male or female?

...l of the species depends on producing children, up until now we haven't understood how germ cells in the developing embryos decide whether to eventually become the sperm or eggs needed later for adult reproduction," said Mark Van Doren, assistant professor in the Department of Biology in the university's K...

Unexpected lock and key mechanism found for the assembly of tumor blood vessels

... to regulate the body's inflammation response, but until this study it wasn't suspected of regulating angiogenesis. It's possible that since the integrin only works on developing blood vessels and in cancer, disrupting its ability to form blood vessels could starve the tumor and stave off cancer." The res...

Identification of specific genes predicts which patients will respond to Hepatitis C treatment

...ated at Toronto Western Hospital from October 2001 until May 2004. Hepatitis C is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). About 230,000 Canadians are infected with it, and about 170 million people worldwide. Over time the viral infection leads to liver damage, cirrhosis and/or liver c...

Attacks of King George III's madness linked to key metabolism molecule

...sual in their severity and that they didn't appear until he was 50. Several types of porphyria exist, all of them stemming from inherited mutations that disrupt the body's manufacture of heme. A reddish pigment that contains iron, heme is a building block of the oxygen-carrying hemoglobin in red blood cel...

New protein vital for immune response is found in surprise location

...ne of an organelle called the mitochondrion, which until now was best known for generating energy required for daily life. "This is the first mitochondrial protein known to be involved in immune defense against any microbial infection," said Dr. Zhijian "James" Chen, associate professor of molecular biolo...

Study shows how retinoic acid enters a cell's nucleus

...s protein was discovered over two decades ago, but until recently scientists had no idea what it did. Much like a doorway that requires a pass code to enter, CRABP-II can only move into a cell's nucleus if its amino acids are organized in a certain sequence, called a nuclear localization signal (NLS). How...

Scientists find that protein controls aging by controlling insulin

... mutant mice lacking the Klotho gene appear normal until about 3 to 4 weeks old, and then begin showing signs of age, such as skin atrophy, osteoporosis, arteriosclerosis and emphysema. The mice died prematurely at about two months. For the current study, they created a second strain of mutant mice in wh...

Pinpointing the cause of a neurodegenerative disorder

...motor coordination. Loss of muscle control worsens until patients can no longer eat or breathe. "We had known that the expansion of the glutamine tract within Ataxin-1 probably interfered with normal clearance of Ataxin-1, meaning that it accumulated in cells," said Zoghbi. She noted that earlier studies ...

New Discovery May Help Doctors Treat Infertility

...ha receptor, that responded to estrogen. It wasn’t until 1996 that the second receptor, estrogen receptor beta, was discovered. The current study provides evidence that the beta receptor plays a more significant role in ovarian function than the alpha receptor. Researchers would like to further their inves...

Woods Hole Research Center plans controlled burn in Amazon rainforest

...g forest, they seldom abandon it and move away, so until education can alter their behavior, repeated sources of ignition in the future are all but guaranteed. The expectation is that the second fire will be hotter and more damaging than the first due to the increased volume of fuel available from those tr...

Elevated temperature enhances success of viral cancer therapy

...hat undergoes selective replication in tumor cells until the cells become so full of virus that they burst and die. The virus is modified so that it only copies itself in tumor cells and is safe for normal cells. In clinical trials, ONYX-015 was a successful therapy for many cancer patients, but the succes...

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