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New antifreeze protein found in fleas may allow longer storage of transplant organs

...ther parts of the world, including Antarctica, but until now no one has isolated the protein. As well as its potential for use in organ transplants, the researchers suggest it could help to increase frost resistance in plants, and inhibit crystallization in frozen foods. ...

New molecule may aid in production of biofuels and fungi-resistant plants

...tinases overcome these challenges has been unclear until now. Interested in learning more about how the breakdown of chitin occurs, Dr. Eijsink and his colleagues investigated chitin degradation by the soil bacterium Serratia marcescens. They discovered that in addition to producing chitinases, the bacter...

Once-dreaded leprosy 'replaced' by tuberculosis, say researchers

...eorize, so many of the lepers died of tuberculosis until there were too few of them to further spread leprosy. TB, meanwhile, was increasingly on the rise as people in the Middle Ages migrated to urban centers, where crowding and poor sanitary conditions provided a fertile breeding ground for the spread of...

Logging doubles threat to the Amazon, rivaling clear-cutting, study suggests

...extent or impacts of selective logging in Amazonia until now, according to the authors. To detect and quantify the amount of selective logging in the five major timber production states of the Brazilian Amazon, the researchers used the new Carnegie Landsat Analysis System. This technology allowed them to...

Life in deadly conditions

...searchers could thus refute the paradigm, dominant until now, that organisms in alkaline conditions have to switch to other ions (for example, sodium, Na+). A higher pH-value leads to the depletion of ammonium. Because ammonium nitrate is a key building block of amino acids, the tiny organism should have ...

New genetic test can detect clam disease

... coastal waters but doesn't become deadly to clams until it reaches a critical concentration in the water. Gast notes that although red tide got a lot of media attention this year, QPX is actually a bigger problem. The toxins that cause red tide in clams and other shellfish in New England do not kill the ...

Wright bros. upstaged! Dinos invented biplanes

...rom a high branch and dove off, falling head-first until it reached a speed that created lift on its wings. With that lift the feathered dino then swooped upwards and landed in the branches of another tree without having to flap its wings and expend muscular energy. "The biplane wing configuration was pr...

Lethal needle blight epidemic may be related to climate change

...tic plantations in the Southern Hemisphere, it has until now been considered a minor threat to northern temperate forests. Lodgepole pines are an economically important species, being used in construction and for pulp. Alex Woods and his colleagues at the British Columbia Forest Service and the University...

Scientists discover the molecular switch for nerve cells' insulating jelly rolls

...ckness of the myelin sheath around axons; however, until now it wasn't clear whether the gene also switched on production of the sheath. In a series of experiments, Dr. Carla Taveggia, the first author of the study and an NYU research scientist, together with collaborators at NYU, Columbia University Coll...

Bacteria which sense the Earth's magnetic field

...terial cells. It is comparable to organelles that, until now, scientists had only been familiar with in hig...e relatively weak magnetic field of the Earth. But until now, scientists did not know how magnetosome chains are formed. The research group of Dr Dirk Schül...

Scientists determine structure of enzyme that disrupts bacterial virulence

...oup think" because certain genes are not turned on until a minimum number of bacteria are present. Hence, this phenomenon is called quorum-sensing. "Being able to disrupt quorum-sensing in these organisms could potentially augment our current treatments, and knowing the structure of this quorum-quenchi...

Researchers know what you were about to say; fMRI used to detect memory storage and retrieval

...he past, each detail we remember triggers another, until the memory returns completely," Polyn said. "In that sense, memory retrieval is like revisiting the past; brain patterns that are long gone can be revived by the memory system." ...

Max Planck researchers make a breakthrough in plant stem cell research

...apical meristem actually stay stem cells. However, until now, it was unclear how hormones and regulatory genes, such as WUSCHEL work together to maintain this fine balance at the tip of the shoot. The working group led by Dr. Jan Lohmann at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology in Tübingen, ...

Past experience of pheromones induces dominant courtship behavior in fruit flies

...carried on exhibiting courtship dominance behavior until they were five days old. The authors of the study note that similar findings have been reported in mice and hamsters, suggesting that dominance behavior may often be affected by chemical signals. In future studies, the researchers hope to take the n...

SLU researchers uncover direct evidence on how HIV invades healthy cells

...ether inside a healthy cell in order to infect it, until now, investigators have not been able to illuminate the process. "Many biological and structural aspects of HIV integration are undefined," said Sibes Bera, Ph.D. "Therefore, any insight into the molecular mechanism of this process is significant in...

Novel protein complex enables survival in hostile environment

...e. "Early earth had a lot of sulfide but no oxygen until about 2.7 billion years ago. Then, the reaction of the small amounts of oxygen with sulfide would have produced an incomplete oxidation product ?sulfite," he said. "Methanogens present during the oxygenation of earth had to face this sulfite." But ...

Genetic testing still smart choice, despite uncertainties

...These embryos tend to not develop this abnormality until after their cells have divided a third time, typically the time when doctors perform preimplantation genetic diagnosis. This is where the problem with diagnosis occurs, researchers say. "Our pathway concept may help to explain the observed outcomes ...

Bugs expose underground carbon traffic system 10 times more important than fossil fuel burning

...bon moved around by the burning of fossil fuel but until now how this happens was at best poorly understood. Soil was almost literally a black box to scientists interested in carbon. Now researchers at the University of Warwick have been able to shed light in that black box by getting a particular class of...

Researchers show how air pollution can cause heart disease

...linked air pollution to cardiovascular disease but until now it was poorly understood how pollution damaged the body's blood vessels. In a well-designed mouse study, where animals breathed air as polluted as the air in New York City, the researchers pinpointed specific mechanisms and showed that air pollu...

Womb needed for proper brain development

...'t change at all from the day the babies were born until they reached what would have been a full-term birth date." These results have clinical relevance in how premature babies are cared for, as they indicate that the early brain may be compromised by being subjected to complex stimulation too early. Th...

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