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Tag: "turned" at biology news

A gene's first 'kiss' sets off that affair known as puberty

...kes two to tango," whereby a signal literally gets turned on by a molecule that is produced by a gene aptly named KiSS-1. The couple ?a biochemical equivalent to Adam and Eve ?makes its sudden appearance in a region of the brain called the hypothalamus just as puberty begins, according to a study published...

Wisconsin scientists grow critical nerve cells

...rlier step in the process? The hunch paid off and turned out to be the final piece of the puzzle. The discovery, says Zhang, demonstrates that human stem cells do not necessarily differentiate in linear fashion, as scientists always believed. Rather, a series of complex overlapping changes may well be the...

Man and mouse share genome structures

...thus allowing the right combination of genes to be turned on. In their study, the researchers analyzed the ...the most important is the mystery of how genes are turned on. The ability to take global views of chromatin in human cells holds tremendous promise for unrave...

Scientists ID molecular 'switch' in liver that triggers harmful effects of saturated and trans fats

...-1beta, the co-activator interacted physically and turned up the function of sterol responsive element binding proteins. These important parts of the mechanism activate many key genes of lipid biosynthesis involving the pathways of cholesterol and triglycerides; these genes directed the liver to manufacture...

It's not all genetic: Common epigenetic problem doubles cancer risk in mice

...inherited from the mother is always supposed to be turned off. In the mice and in some people, however, cel... on the DNA and keep the maternally inherited copy turned off. As a result, cells make a double dose of the IGF2 protein and are said to have "loss of imprint...

Study Demonstrates Gene Expression Microarrays are Comparable and Reproducible

...atories analyzed geneexpression (whether genes are turned on or off) for the same set ofhuman tumor tissues. Overall, the expression profiles of portions ofindividual samples were highly comparable, and the experimentalcorrelation between separate labs was only slightly lower thancorrelation of duplicated e...

Bound for destruction: Ubiquitination protects against improper Notch signaling

... Notch signaling became clearerwhen the group next turned to examine the interaction between Nedd4 andDeltex (Dx), a putative ubiquitin ligase known to bind and activate theNotch receptor. Hayashi’s group found evidence that Nedd4 and Dx viewith each other to regulate Notch activity during endocytosis, and ...

Gene therapy converts dead bone graft to new, living tissue

...d the inflammatory tissue around the dead bone and turned on the genes. The mouse body then began to treat the implanted bone as if it were its own tissue instead of a foreign object, which would normally trigger the body to wrap the "invader" in scar tissue. "That recognition is the key," says Schwarz. "I...

Clam embryo study shows pollutant mixture adversely affects nerve cell development

... atthe single-neuron level to learn what genes are turned on and off bythe exposure to the chemical mixture. The research is focused on afamily of genes known as P53, which helps to regulate the cell cycle.They have also moved their studies to a new model system: thezebrafish, a vertebrate with more similar...

Study identifies predictors of HIV drug resistance in patients beginning triple therapy

... atthe single-neuron level to learn what genes are turned on and off bythe exposure to the chemical mixture. The research is focused on afamily of genes known as P53, which helps to regulate the cell cycle.They have also moved their studies to a new model system: thezebrafish, a vertebrate with more similar...

An HIV Protein Plays a Surprising Role in Gene Activation

...estion in living human cells, Green and colleagues turned to chromatin immunoprecipitation, a technique that detects proteins bound (directly or indirectly) to DNA. Working with three well-known effectors of transcription—an activator (Gal4-VP16), a transcriptional enhancer, and another viral activator call...

Essential mangrove forest threatened by cryptic ecological degradation

...teractions that affect the hydrology of rivers has turned coastal mangrove lagoons into freshwater bodies. Such elucidation of past ecosystem processes and human-environment interactions is an essential part of the Past Global Changes (PAGES) project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP...

Protein Packages Found To Activate Genes; May Be What Regulates Development And Disease

... them do different things involves which genes are turned on," notes Bradley Bernstein, a pathologist at Har...dually like most genes, the HOX genes appear to be turned on in groups by massive numbers of tags. HOX genes also are deeply involved in cancer, making the f...

First 'atlas' of key brain genes could speed research on cancer, neurological diseases

...se that appeared to be transcription factors: they turned up1,445 of them. Next, they determined that more than 1,000 of these TF’swere expressed in the brains of developing mice.Using genetic probes to investigate thin sections of mouse brains, thescientists found that only 349 of the TF genes were express...

Scientists develop new color-coded test for protein folding

... the pH was raised from 4 to 10, the blue solution turned reddish once again--a strong indication that some cytochrome c molecules had refolded into their original three-dimensional shape. In fact, the experiment showed that, when attached to gold film, cytochrome c can fold, unfold and refold countless tim...

Scientists identify genetic pathways essential to RNA interference

...the worms to glow under ultraviolet light but also turned that gene off using RNAi. They then used RNAi to inactivate every one of the worms' 19,000 genes by feeding the worms bacteria that produce double-stranded RNA for each gene. Inactivation of about 90 genes caused the worms to glow, indicating that th...

Same mutation aided evolution in many fish species, Stanford study finds

...nd fins all shared an alteration in how a gene was turned on and off. The striking similarity is that in both studies evolution turned to the same genetic switch to work a visible change in the fish. However, in the fin study the group...

Papers of DNA Pioneer and Nobel Laureate Francis Crick Added to National Library of Medicine’s Profiles in Science Web Site

...e full elucidation of the code by 1966. Crick then turned to developmental biology, the study of how genes control the growth and specialization of organs. In 1976, Crick moved to the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California, where he took up neurobiology, his other long-standing scien...

Studies reveal methods viruses use to sidestep immune system

...srupt the cell's immune response that is otherwise turned on through RIG-I by the virus infection. The viral protease, NS3/4A, chops up essential signaling proteins involved in carrying RIG-I's message to IRF-3. Without those signals, IRF-3 can't turn on the genes to make interferon, and the virus continues...

Alcohol's effects on gene expression in the central nervous system

...find out which genes ?out of more than 50,000 ?are turned on or off in the brains of alcoholics," he said. "Microarray studies ?the examination of a small glass microscope slide that has thousands of different DNA samples attached to it ?that are applied to brain function are just beginning in the field of ...

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