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Tag: "triggers" at biology news

St. Jude study solves mystery of mammalian ears

...prestin is the motor in mammalian outer hair cells triggers this contraction. And that is where the debate begins. While both mammals and non-mammals have cilia on their outer hair cells, only mammalian outer hair cells have prestin, which drives this cellular contraction, or somatic motility. The contractio...

Cells re-energize to come back from the brink of death

...les and leak a molecule called cytochrome c, which triggers the activity of enzymes called caspases. In turn, ...ogy department and the study’s senior author. MOMP triggers apoptosis, but if apoptosis fails because there is no caspase available, the backup program called c...

Researchers track how spores break out of dormant state

...e,” Plomp said. When exposed to a solution that triggers germination, nanometer sized etch pits were seen developing in the rodlet layer. These etch pits evolved into ever widening fissures, leaving narrow strips of remaining rodlet structure. In the end, 1- to 3- nm-wide fibrils remained. The in vitro AFM...

In mice, drug protects against diabetes and atherosclerosis

...duced the activity of gene pathway called JNK that triggers the inflammatory and insulin-resistance responses to fatty diets. As an "added bonus," commented Hotamisligil, the drug also exerted a marked protective effect against another metabolic disorder, fatty liver disease. While the genetic variant s...

Breakthrough developments in rheumatoid arthritis reported

...matory condition and can be used to understand the triggers of the disease. This will provide key insights into the pathways underlying rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. It may ultimately provide tests to predict who will respond to the available new treatments. Franak Batliwalla, PhD, also...

Now, self-healing materials can mimic human skin, healing again and again

...stems. “In the same manner that a cut in the skin triggers blood flow to promote healing, a crack in these new materials will trigger the flow of healing agent to repair the damage,” said Nancy Sottos, a Willett Professor of materials science and engineering, and the corresponding author of a paper accepted ...

Study shows lizard moms dress their children for success

...s not yet clear why an "orange" social environment triggers this hormonal tweaking of the eggs. "The females are responding to cues that predict something about the future environment, but we're not sure yet exactly what that is," Lancaster said. "Orange-throated neighbors may indicate a trend in the freq...

Runners -- Let thirst be your guide

...e adds. Investigators have been researching the triggers that stimulate AVP secretion during exercise, and have found several. One is a loss of fluid from the body and blood as a result of sweating during prolonged exercise. Another is nausea, a common reaction to extreme sports, which makes the body think...

Putting feelings into words produces therapeutic effects in the brain

...e amygdala alarm center response in the brain that triggers negative feelings. Creswell, who conducted the mindfulness research as an advanced graduate student of psychology at UCLA, said mindfulness meditation is a “potent and powerful therapy that has been helping people for thousands of years.” Previ...

St. Jude study shows genes play an unexpected role in their own activation

...have discovered how a single molecular “on switch” triggers gene activity that might cause effects ranging fro...ule that binds to a section of DNA near a gene and triggers that gene to make the specific protein for which it codes. CREB activates genes in response to a mol...

First confirmed common genetic risk factors for breast cancer

...ivities that previously had not been implicated as triggers of breast cancer. The genes carry the DNA recipes for proteins important to the growth and duplication of body cells and the signalling, or communications, that must occur between cells in order for the body to function normally. Previous invest...

Detecting cold, feeling pain: Study reveals why menthol feels fresh

..., and in 2000 reported that, in mice, the receptor triggers the nerves to fire pain signals when they are exposed to high ambient heat or the fiery properties of peppery food. (Science, April 14, 2000). The study demonstrated that capsaicin and noxious heat elicit the sensation of burning pain through activat...

Mice with a migraine show signs of brain damage

...e to prevent the headaches, by avoiding a person’s triggers for the headaches and by using medications prescribed by doctors to prevent them. “Normally, the focus of migraine treatment is to reduce the pain. We’re saying that migraines may be causing brain damage, and that the focus should be on prevention...

Scripps research team sheds light on long-sought cold sensation gene

...t the idea that activation of TRPM8 by temperature triggers cold sensation. "TRPM8 acts as a gate," says Dhaka, "At warm temperature it remains closed, but opens when exposed to cool temperature." The TRPM8-deficient mice did not lose their ability to feel pain in response to extreme cold, as evidenced by...

Gene mutation linked to cognition is found only in humans

...encing revealed a mutation specific to humans that triggers a change in the splicing pattern of the neuropsin gene, creating a new splicing site and a longer protein. Introducing this mutation into chimpanzee DNA resulted in the creation of type II neuropsin. "Hence, the human-specific mutation is not only n...

Iowa State scientists demonstrate first use of nanotechnology to enter plant cells

... simultaneously deliver a gene and a chemical that triggers its expression with controlled precision. Their breakthrough brings nanotechnology to plant biology and agricultural biotechnology, creating a powerful new tool for targeted delivery into plant cells. The research, "Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles ...

Genome sequencing reveals key to viable ethanol production

...genes, which wake up and start pumping out the two triggers the full production of wood-degrading enzymes CelC and LicA. Wu’s paper shows the first time the triggering pathway for enzyme production in this bacterium has been revealed, and it was only possible because C. thermocellum genome was just recently...

Scientists see DNA get 'sunburned' for the first time

... often decays away harmlessly, but occasionally it triggers a chemical reaction that alters the DNA's molecular structure. Previously, scientists believed that the longer a DNA molecule was excited by UV energy, the greater the chance that it would sustain damage. So long-lived excited states were thought ...

Mechanism of nicotine's learning effects explored

...he strength of the connections by which one neuron triggers another. Huibert Mansvelder and colleagues reported their findings in the April 5, 2007, issue of the journal Neuron, published by Cell Press. The researchers made their discoveries by analyzing the electrophysiological properties of neurons in sl...

Need oxygen? Cells know how to spend and save

... set out to figure out if the sensor protein HIF-1 triggers the COX-swapping. By examining the gene control regions of COX4, they found that the HIF-1 sensor switched on COX4-2 activity when oxygen is low. And they learned that because COX4-1 already is in the mitochondria, the swap for COX4-2 occurs when...

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