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Tag: "transport" at biology news

Research identifies protein that signals flowering in squash plants

...ents to allow accurate monitoring of long-distance transport of potential signalling compounds in plants. Some of the principal factors associated with the photoperiodic induction of flowering are proteins known as CONSTANS (CO) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). CO does not appear to travel long distances through th...

Simulations unravel outer membrane transport mechanism

...mplex interplay of proteins involved in the active transport of materials across cell membranes. Their study, ...nside. The new study examined an outer membrane transport system that depends on an energy-generating inner membrane protein, TonB. This TonB-dependent transp...

How sneaky HIV escapes cells

...V, the virus that causes AIDS, uses a pre-existing transport system to leave one infected cell and infect new ones, Hopkins scientists have discovered. Their findings, published in the June issue of Plos Biology, counter the prevailing belief that HIV and other retroviruses can only leave and enter cells by vi...

'Lucky 13' as new gene discovery offers further hope for childhood blindness

... segments of photoreceptors in the retina. Protein transport is essential within retinal photoreceptor cells as they are long, thin cells with a highly evolved structure on one end (the outer segment) which detects light and sends signals to the brain, a function requiring a large amount of energy. "LCA is ...

Penn researchers link cell's protein recycling systems

...hat it could bind to ubiquitin-tagged proteins and transport them within the cell. So we wondered, could HDAC6 be the link"” Taylor’s group showed that if the HDAC6 gene is knocked out, inducing autophagy no longer rescues the fly eyes from neurodegeneration. Therefore, autophagy requires HDAC6 to work. Th...

Bacteria ferry nanoparticles into cells for early diagnosis, treatment

...e therapy, a big obstacle has been finding ways to transport the therapeutic DNA molecule through the nuclear membrane and into the nucleus," he said. "Only when it is in the nucleus can the DNA produce proteins that perform specific functions and correct genetic disease conditions." When the cargo-carrying...

Staphylococcus aureus hides out in cells

...e expression for bacterial metabolic functions and transport shut down, putting the bacteria in a dormant state. Simultaneously, production of toxins potentially lethal for the epithelial cells becomes strictly controlled to limit cellular damage. Mechanisms that helped the bacteria to survive and/or multiply,...

Surprising origin of cell's internal highways

...iphery. Their rapid assembly and disassembly helps transport proteins throughout the cell and generate polarize...es may influence cell motility by facilitating the transport of proteins needed for movement to the cell front. "This new microtubule subset that we discover...

Arctic ice retreating more quickly than computer models project

...hanges in atmospheric and oceanic circulation that transport heat to polar regions. March ice Although the loss of ice for March is far less dramatic than the September loss, the models underestimate it by a wide margin as well. The study concludes that the actual rate of sea ice loss in March, which av...

The longest carbon nanotubes you've ever seen

...period of time thus, providing fast and continuous transport of the carbon 'building blocks' to the carbon nanotube growth zone," said Shanov. The carbon nanotubes are extremely long compared to predecessors--the longest is 3 millimeters beyond the prior world record. More important for manufacturing, the r...

Researchers develop way to calculate speed of bacterial sex

...iated with conjugations, bacterial cell motion and transport in ground water, and the colonization of soil surf...hers created a new mathematical model of bacterial transport and conjugation that focused on subsurface bacteria colonizing surfaces, such as sand and soil grain...

Navigable nanotransport

To accurately transport pharmaceutical agents to their specific target organs or cell types, you need a good carrier: nanoscopic capsules with surface elements that can "recognize" the target in question could do the trick. To date, all methods for the production of such t...

Bisexual fruit flies show new role for neurochemical

...dence that ambient extracellular glutamate and xCT transport proteins play important, unsuspected roles in brain function," Featherstone said. "We think we'll be able to learn a lot about perception and development from figuring out exactly what's happening in these flies. "It's amazing how many biomedical b...

New mechanism for nutrient uptake discovered

...dy, the scientists wanted to identify how ammonium transport is regulated. Plants import nitrogen in the for...acilitates rapid and sensitive control of ammonium transport to preclude over-accumulation of an ion that is beneficial at low concentrations, but potentially to...

Shedding new light on proteorhodopsin

...eorhodopsin is a light-driven proton pump, able to transport protons across cellular membranes in order to create stored electrochemical energy. In this respect, it is similar to another protein, bacteriorhodopsin, that's used by bacteria in salt ponds to supplement respiration. However, in experiments in whic...

Putting an old drug to a new use

...DMT-1 transports iron across cell membranes. This transport is increased ten to 100-fold by nifedipine, but ho...ux into cells, but if it exerts its effect on iron transport indirectly by changing Ca2+ levels in the cell or by binding directly to DMT-1 in liver and kidney s...

The chimpanzee stone age

...utes once thought exclusive of humanity, including transport of raw materials across the landscape; selection and curation of raw materials for a specific type of work and projected usage; habitual reoccupation of sites where garbage and debris accumulate; and the use of locally available resources. Nut cracki...

Researchers create artificial enzyme that mimics the body's internal engine

...h mitochondrion is a structure called the electron transport chain, which produces adenosine triphosphate (ATP)...ecule that is the source of the cell's energy. The transport chain is made up of a series of proteins known as electron carriers. Each carrier receives electrons...

Proteins important in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease travel in the slow lane

...he cell body. Understanding this process of axonal transport is important for studying many neurodegenerative d...appeared in the Journal of Neuroscience. Axonal transport often breaks down and many neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by defects in this process. ...

Scientists find new genetic clue to cause of Alzheimer's disease

...r genetic influences amid a group of proteins that transport APP within cells, looking for small changes, or "misspellings," in seven genes involved in moving APP within cells. To start, the scientists combed two large data sets of genetic information from families in which more than one person has Alzheime...

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