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Tag: "translation" at biology news

Timing is everything: First step in protein building revealed

...ndicate that it must be very looselyassociated for translation [protein building] to begin."To monitor what was happening to eIF1, the researchers tagged it and arelated part of the ribosome with different fluorescent chemicals. Whentwo fluorescently labeled molecules are near one another, thefluorescent chemica...

Yale Scientists Find MicroRNA Regulates Ras Cancer Gene

...binding to the message for Ras and likely inhibits translation of the Ras protein," said Slack. "The microRNA does not revert a mutated Ras to normal; instead it acts like a brake on an accelerated Ras." Lung cancer currently has a poor prognosis with less than 15 percent of patients surviving five years. The l...

Scientists reveal molecular secrets of the malaria parasite

... specific to the mosquito stage,indicating delayed translation of transcripts from these genes.Hall says that gene-regulation motif "is particularly interestingbecause these proteins, expressed early in the mosquito, are the targetof transmission-blocking vaccines" —that is, vaccines which raiseantibodies that a...

Affymetrix and the Karolinska Institutet Announce Translational Medicine Strategic Alliance

...designed to improve healthcare by accelerating the translation of basic genetic research into tools for better diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. During the next five years the projects include genetic analyses and measurement of gene expression in patients with atherosclerosis, breast cancer, rheumatoid arth...

Used in a new way, RNA interference permanently silences key breast cancer gene

...roduct, its messenger RNA. This action then blocks translation and production of the protein that the gene encodes. In this study, the researchers used a lentivirus (a type of retrovirus) to deliver a specifically designed long-acting small interfering RNA (termed a short hairpin RNA, shRNA) for mouse STAT3 int...

Cooperation is key—a new way of looking at MicroRNA and how it controls gene expression

... came out that showed that microRNA could suppress translation in certain Drosophila (fruit fly) genes if those genes contained sequences complementary to the microRNA's sequence. But finding the targets of these microRNA proved difficult, and by the turn off the century, only a few had been identified. When th...

Stanford gut check shows diversity of intestinal ecosystem

...chaea. The molecule, 16S rRNA, plays a role in the translation of the genetic code and thus is critical to the organisms. However, small variations in the 16S rRNA gene sequences allow scientists to detect distinct bacteria. For each of the three research subjects, the researchers analyzed samples from six diff...

How A Latent Virus Eludes Immune Defenses

...es that killer T cells recognize come from aborted translation events, it may be that evasive action is taken at the RNA transcript stage, before RNA is translated into protein. Evading killer T cells, the authors argue, is key to the survival of the gamma-herpesvirus. By figuring out just how evasion occurs, sc...

Touching Molecules With Your Bare Hands

...es that killer T cells recognize come from aborted translation events, it may be that evasive action is taken at the RNA transcript stage, before RNA is translated into protein. Evading killer T cells, the authors argue, is key to the survival of the gamma-herpesvirus. By figuring out just how evasion occurs, sc...

Scientists find microRNAs regulate plant development

...s the mRNA into smaller pieces, thereby preventing translation of the protein it encodes, and thus inhibiting or "silencing" gene expression. mRNAs corresponding to several regulatory genes that mediate auxin responses contain short stretches of sequence that are complementary to microRNAs, and therefore have be...

Evolution of life on Earth may hold key to finding life in outer space

...om the Exobiology Program, will extend the work on translation to look for evidence of the RNA world preserved in extant genomes. The other, from NASA's Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, will conduct research to develop tests for the presence of living microorganisms that can be...

Life's origins were easier than was thought

...mber of genes that have the role of making the RNA translation system (which enables proteins to be produced) work, which would not be required in RNA-based organism. ...

Study charts origins of fear

...ion is currently working with Zhuo to push for the translation of this finding into treatments. ...

North & South American researchers find architectural abnormalities in T. cruzi ribosome

...of more complex organisms. "Ribosomes perform the translation of genetic information into protein in all organisms," Frank said. "The principle is always the same in plants, bacteria, and humans. It's a fundamental property of life on Earth." Another HHMI investigator, Thomas A. Steitz of Yale University, prod...

Scientists crack 40-year-old DNA puzzle and point to 'hot soup' at the origin of life

...s error tolerance. For instance, 'slippage' in the translation process tends to produce another amino acid with the same characteristics, and explains why the DNA code is so good at maintaining its integrity. "This is important because these kinds of mistakes can be fatal for an organism," said Dr van den Elsen...

Study provides insight into cellular defenses against genetic mutation

...rrors are detected. A second "steady-state" round translation then directs the mass production of normal protein... cap-binding complex is part of the larger pioneer translation initiation complex, which enables mRNAs to be read by ribosomes during quality control review. Previ...

New insights into the software of life

...ly been awarded a grant from RIKEN to continue the translation of this work into the next phase, the Human Genome network project. ...

Researchers discover new form of cancer gene regulation

..., it binds to the Quaking protein and inhibits the translation event. This means that all of the controls that the cell has on the gene for GLI1 can be present and active and the GLI1 is still not produced. Significantly, the study demonstrated that this regulation is conserved from human to the worm, Caenorhab...

RNA splicing occurs in nerve-cell dendrites

...As, through local splicing, and subsequent protein translation may permit exquisitely sensitive control of these cellular functions. "The regulation and timing of the expression of proteins is what makes the central nervous system function," says Eberwine. The diversity and redundancy of the nervous-system...

A real time look at interactions between RNA and proteins

... those involved in the targeting, degradation, and translation of RNAs into proteins. Once identified, the Eberwine team uses another technology they developed to find the other RNA cargos that bind to that RNA-binding protein. These are other RNAs that likely co-regulate RNAs associated with disease. The res...

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