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Tag: "transcription" at biology news

New findings challenge established views on human genome

...for proteins; regulatory elements that control the transcription of genes; and elements that maintain the structure... providing new perspectives on everything from DNA transcription to mammalian evolution. In particular, we gained significant insight into DNA sequences that do not ...

St. Jude study shows genes play an unexpected role in their own activation

...er. The “on switch,” a protein called CREB, is a transcription factor—a molecule that binds to a section of DNA n.... Previously, scientists thought that a particular transcription factor uses the same co-factors to activate all its target genes. The new findings showed that p...

Newly identified mechanism for silencing genes points to possible anti-cancer strategies

...various mechanisms that act to interfere with gene transcription into messenger RNA or translation of messenger RNA into protein. In a new study published online May 16 in the journal Nature, a team of scientists at The Wistar Institute and the University of California, San Diego, report identification of an im...

Revealing the machinery underlying the 'plastic' juvenile brain

... stimulation activated genes known to regulate the transcription of other genes. Transcription is the process of copying DNA genes into RNA, which acts as a blueprint for making proteins. As a test to determine whether such histone modification functionally affected plasticity, the researchers administered a dr...

Discovery of 'master switch' for the communication process between chloroplast and nuclei of plants

...ding binding factor known that ABI4, a known plant transcription factor. It prevents light-induced regulatory factors from activating gene expression. Additional work in the project had determined that the chloroplast-localized, nuclear-encoded protein GUN1 is required for integrating multiple stress-derived signa...

Blood sugar's manufacture limited by building blocks' supply

..., a member of the so-called Krüppel-like family of transcription factors, become severely lacking in the blood suga...tion. Meanwhile, Jain plans to further examine the transcription factor's function in other parts of the body where it is active, namely in skeletal and heart muscle...

Beyond the DNA: Chemical signatures reveal genetic switches in the genome

...ely distinguish between promoters, from which gene transcription is directly initiated, and enhancer regions - some of which are very distant from the target gene - to which transcription-activating cofactors bind. According to LICR's Dr. Bing Ren, the study's senior author and assistant professor at UCSD's De...

Mutation improves memory, may lead to memory-enhancing pill

...izing that a gene's expression depends on both its transcription into messenger RNA and the translation of that messenger RNA into functional proteins. Sonenberg and Costa-Mattioli earlier found the first genetic evidence that control over protein synthesis plays an important role in the formation of lasting me...

Major gene study uncovers secrets of leukemia

...ing to Downing. These genes encode proteins called transcription factors, which orchestrate the expression of a large number of other genes involved in B cell development. Together these genes coordinate the complex changes needed to induce progenitor cells to differentiate into B lymphocytes. In ALL, the leukemic...

Brown cancer biologists identify major player in cell growth

...d blood, and the creation of cancer -- is a single transcription factor called GABP, according to new research from...ng the accelerators that rev-up cell division. Ets transcription factors, a family of gene-regulating proteins that are major players in embryonic and cancer develop...

New player in commitment to life as a fat cell

...they found evidence that XOR controls PPAR-gamma a transcription factor considered to be the master regulator of fat production since it is both necessary and sufficient for adipose differentiation both in vitro and in vivo, the researchers said. Treatments that inhibited XOR activity in cells blocked fat forma...

Bacteria control how infectious they become, study finds

...ctivating, genes ?is controlled by proteins called transcription factors. Every type of bacteria known to humankind contains the transcription factor NusG, which controls nearly all of a bacterium's gene expression. Without it, a microorganism...

Liver regeneration may be simpler than previously thought

...ins were common to both processes. Proteins called transcription factors, which affect DNA in the cell's nucleus, w...late than the other identified proteins. Since the transcription factors were not present in regenerating livers, it might be easier to stimulate liver regeneration ...

Keeping the body in sync -- The stability of cellular clocks

...r Research. “We found that the phosphorylation and transcription rates of a specific gene are key determinants of the stability of our internal body clocks.? This result is consistent with recent research from the University of California, San Francisco involving families whose circadian clocks don’t tick quite...

Scientists discover stage at which an embryonic cell is fated to become a stem cell

...he embryo." The study also found cell fate and transcription activity is determined by the level of a methylated form of histone H3, one of the basic proteins around which DNA is packaged and which when modified in this way affects gene expression. They found that the higher the levels of this modified form o...

Elucidation of the genome for diabetics with DNA chips

...HHEX, EXT2 and SLC30A8. TCF7L2 and HHEX encode transcription factors (molecules regulating the activity of other genes) controlling the Wnt signalling pathway essential for cell survival. Studies in animals have shown that the absence of these genes impairs pancreatic function. EXT2 encodes an enzyme involv...

Gene that makes people 'early to bed and early to rise' demystified

...that is not the case. It comes back instead to the transcription level as the most important step." FASPS is a re...in phosphorylation at amino acid 662 increased the transcription of PER2 and pushed the animals' sleep pattern later. Their studies in mice revealed that the amino...

Finnish scientists discovered a new approach to treat virus-induced lymphomas

...of Clinical Investigation. TP53 gene encodes a transcription factor (p53) that plays a central role in protecting cells from tumor development by inducing cell-cycle arrest or apoptosis via a complex signal transduction network referred to as the p53 pathway. TP53 gene is mutated or deleted in 50% of all malig...

Scientists map key landmarks in human genome

...llmark features of the human genome, such as where transcription factors bind, where transcription begins and possibly ends, and where there are other biologically important structural features," sai...

Jefferson researchers' discovery may change thinking on how viruses invade the brain

...ved the LC8 binding site and viral replication and transcription were affected. But we didn’t find a difference in ...er with the binding site than without it. LC8 is a transcription factor that helps the virus efficiently replicate in cells." The researchers were surprised by th...

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