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Tag: "traced" at biology news

Study of protein folds offers insight into metabolic evolution

...undisputedly encoded in a genetic core that can be traced back to the universal ancestor of the three superkingdoms of life," the authors wrote. The analysis also found that the most ancient metabolic protein folds are important to RNA metabolism, specifically the interconversion of the purine and pyrimi...

Blood sugar's manufacture limited by building blocks' supply

...ter a period of overnight fasting. The researchers traced that deficiency back to an inability to produce new glucose in the liver, a process known as gluconeogenesis, due to a defect in the processing of amino acids. Amino acids are the main ingredients of proteins and the source of a key substrate in bloo...

Mechanism of nicotine's learning effects explored

...ctions among neurons. What’s more, the researchers traced this effect to nicotine’s action on specific kinds of neurons, called GABAergic neurons, in the learning centers. In turn, the effects on GABAergic neurons affected signaling between neurons mediated by the key substance calcium. The researchers a...

Power-boosting signal in muscle declines with age

...intracellular fat content seen with aging could be traced back to deficiencies of AMPK. They compared AMPK activity in young and old rats following three "perturbations" that normally stimulate the enzyme and, in turn, mitochondria production. The treatments included acute exposure to an AMPK-stimulating ch...

FSU researchers determine a critical factor in workings of proteins

...deficiencies and low blood-platelet counts, can be traced to mutations on the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein," Zhou said. "Normally, fast association of the protein with other biomolecules is critical for the creation of proper cell structures. The failure of the protein to associate quickly, then, is the...

'Ancestral eve' was mother of all tooth decay

...g with its human hosts in a clear line that can be traced back to a single common ancestor who lived in Africa between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago. S. mutans is transmitted from mothers to infants, and first appears in an infant’s mouth at about two years of age. Caufield’s findings are reported in ...

On automatic pilot

...al tracer agent in various muscles, the researcher traced the cerebellar modules involved in the control of a single muscle. She then inactivated one of the modules by injecting a neurotoxin. The rat's ability to walk was scarcely altered but there was a strong decrease in its ability to respond quickly to ...

Nobel Laureate finds 'elegant' explanation for DNA transcribing enzyme's high fidelity

...the matching nucleotide,?Kornberg said. The team traced that protein density back to a portion of the polymerase II enzyme: the trigger loop. “Of the 14 crystal structures now reported in which the trigger loop was observed, only in two is it seen in that location, directly beneath the NTP,?Kornberg sai...

Cocaine high caused by interference in neuronal receiving stations

...e high of cocaine. In studies with rats, they have traced the effect to interactions between two types of receiving stations in neurons for nerve signals from their neighbors. The researchers' studies in rats found that when the animals received cocaine, a component of a receptor for the neurotransmitter do...

Researchers identify new weapon to fight deadly bacterial sepsis

...e. Other experiments conducted in cell cultures traced the specific biochemical pathways by which LPS triggers an inflammatory cycle that damages the cells of the heart. By blocking aldose reductase activity with pharmacological inhibitors or using small interfering RNAs (pieces of genetic material that ...

Tulane researcher reports on origin of deadly fever outbreak

...ropean research facilities in 1967 after outbreaks traced to infected monkeys imported from Uganda. Only a few sporadic cases were reported until the 1998?000 outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The team recorded a fatality rate of 83 percent for that outbreak. Young male miners comprised 52...

Otherworldly bacteria discovered two miles down

...l depend at least in part on nutrients that can be traced back to photosynthetic plants or bacteria. The international team led by T. C. Onstott of Princeton University,* which also includes Carnegie staff scientist Douglas Rumble and former Carnegie postdoctoral researcher Pei-Ling Wang, also now at Na...

Major initiative proposed to address amphibian crisis

...rectly to global climate change, in a process that traced global warming ultimately to a catastrophic egg mortality in the western toad of the Pacific Northwest Cascade Range. Work is continuing at OSU today on contaminants and the effects of UVB solar radiation that may amplify the impacts of the fungus...

Unique dual target specificity of kinase inhibitor key for success against cancer

...glioma cells. The cellular activity of PI-103 was traced to its ability to cooperatively inhibit both the p110á subunit of PI3 kinase and a downstream molecule called mTOR that also plays a critical role in cell growth. Although both of these molecules are members of the same signaling cascade, the researc...

Research reveals inner workings of immune system 'thermostat'

...ood cells known as T helper 1 cells. The team then traced secretion of Interferon-γ indirectly to tyrosine kinase 2, or tyk2, the same protein that signals "hot" inflammatory cytokines Interleukin 12 and Interferon-α and Interferon-β. "Under the prevailing paradigm, scientists believe that the pro- and an...

APS lecturer shows rare video of 'teacher-student' immune cell interactions in live animal

...e that has entered the body," von Andrian said. He traced the path of the educated T cells leaving the lymph node, when they become known as effector cells. In addition, von Andrian addressed how these T cells kill those cells they identified as harboring a pathogen without going on a rampage and annihilati...

Newly discovered killer cell fights cancer

...aled certain "cell-killing" proteins that could be traced to IKDCs. These results are published separately in Nature Medicine. Housseau's group is conducting further studies to verify the role of IKDC cells in infection and cancer. Meanwhile, the group is profiling IKDC genes to find a specific marker th...

ASU researchers find link between social behavior, maternal traits in bees

...ofessor Gro Amdam thinks part of the answer can be traced back to bee reproductive traits. A paper describing Amdam's experiments, "Complex social behavior derived from maternal reproductive traits," is the cover story of the current issue (Jan. 5, 2006) of Nature. Additional authors include M. Kim Fondrk...

Gene variation increases SIDS risk in African Americans

...infant death syndrome) in African Americans can be traced to defects in one gene and half of those deaths result from a common genetic variation that increases an infant's risk of developing an abnormal heart rhythm during times of environmental stress, a research team based at the University of Chicago rep...

UF scientists trace origin of shark's electric sense

...hile hunting and navigating. Now researchers have traced the origin of those electrosensory powers to the same type of embryonic cells that gives rise to many head and facial features in humans. The discovery, reported by University of Florida scientists in the current edition of Evolution & Developme...

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