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Tag: "theory" at biology news

Nicotine rush hinges on sugar in neurons

...re entirely hydrophobic, Chen said, supporting the theory that the buried water molecule plays a functional role. Chen called the group’s Nature Neuroscience study “one of the few times that you felt that you connected the dots.” The study also represents a tour de force of protein crystallography. Homo...

Pregnant mom's exposure to flu vaccine kick-starts fetal immune system

...rnal vaccination against influenza, supporting the theory that the human neonatal immune system is not deficient or incompetent but, rather, capable of responding to environmental exposures. These conclusions have important implications for determining when immune responses to environmental exposures begin....

Math that powers spam filters used to understand how brain learns to move our muscles

...art by a special kind of statistical “probability” theory called Bayesian math. Unlike conventional statistical analysis, a Bayesian probability is a subjective “opinion,” that measures a “learner’s” individual degree of belief in a particular outcome when that outcome is uncertain. The idea as applied ...

Bigger horns equal better genes

... are evidence to support the mutation accumulation theory of ageing, which is the idea that, because natural selection weakens with age, genetic mutations have effects that accumulate over time. Therefore, differences in genetic quality become more apparent as an organism ages. Coltman noted that his st...

Caribbean frogs started with a single, ancient voyage on a raft from South America

...rmed DNA sequencing and analysis. One prominent theory had proposed that frog species on the large island... about 70-to-80-million years ago. A second major theory proposed that they arrived, instead, by rafting across the Caribbean Sea after the giant asteroid im...

Research finds that circadian rhythms dominate all life functions

...putational Biology on June 15, refutes the current theory that only 10 percent to 15 percent of all genes were affected by nature's clock. While scientists have long known that circadian rhythms regulate the behavior of the living, the study shows that daily rhythm dominates all life functions and particula...

Study identifies 5 genetic themes key to keeping stem cells in a primitive, flexible state

...Dr. Michael Rudnicki, referring to the often-cited theory of everything for physics. Dr. Rudnicki is a Senior Scientist and Professor at the Ottawa Health Research Institute and the University of Ottawa. He also leads the Sprott Centre for Stem Cell Research in Ottawa and Canada’s Stem Cell Network. Whi...

Ancient retrovirus sheds light on modern pandemic

... but left no traces of having infected humans. Our theory is that this is because humans had this innate viral defense system," Emerman said. To test their hypothesis, Emerman and co-authors Harmit Singh Malik, Ph.D., an evolutionary biologist and an assistant member of the Center's Basic Sciences Divisio...

Experimental gene therapy 'abolishes' arthritis pain and lessens joint damage

..., Kyrkanides’ work has contributed to the emerging theory that pain is not a symptom of osteoarthritis, but is instead part of the disease. According to this new paradigm, pain is composed of nerve messages that over time cause permanent chemical changes in the pathways they travel along, making them more s...

Lessons from the orangutans: Upright walking may have begun in the trees

... had already descended to the savannah, as current theory suggests. These findings appear in the 1 June 2007 issue of the journal Science , published by AAAS, the nonprofit science society. Upright walking, or bipedalism, has long been considered a defining feature of humans and our closest ancestors...

Gene malfunctions cause schizophrenia, depression symptoms in mice

...ession. Also, they said their findings support the theory that the two disorders share common genetic mechan...isorder, and major depression. The researchers' theory was that different mutant variations of DISC1 might have different pathological effects. To test thi...

Chemical maps hint at drug's effects on schizophrenia

... disease will progress. Although the prevailing theory has been that schizophrenia is caused by an imbalance in neurotransmitter molecules that help send messages between nerve cells in the brain, scientists recently have begun to investigate whether lipids, small fatty molecules such as cholesterol and ...

Gene thought to assist chemo may help cancer thrive

...Donald and colleagues are continuing to test their theory by conducting studies in cell cultures and mice. If it bears out, then disabling the gene in tumors, through medications or new genetic techniques during chemotherapy may help patients survive....

Flies don't buzz about aimlessly!

...articularly exciting because it suggests a unified theory for one of the most critical behaviour animals exhibit ?foraging for food." The next step will be toward integrating these results with the neurobiology of fly flight to better understand how these tiny animals are so successful at crashing our di...

Scientists identify pancreatic cancer stem cells

...t of some, if not all, cancers, Simeone said. That theory suggests that only cells that have the properties of "stemness" -- that is, cells that can self-renew and differentiate into other types of cells -- are the only ones capable of producing tumors. These "cancer stem cells," could derive from normal ad...

Noise echoes in cell communications

...g, the Rutgers-Camden research team's mathematical theory improves previous knowledge by offering a single explanation of the properties of noise in hearing under different conditions. To develop the theory, Hong used a variation on the wavelet technique, which he says is responsible for clarifying the JPG ...

Despite their heft, many dinosaurs had surprisingly tiny genomes

...ontinues in modern birds. "Our work debunks the theory that the small, repeat-poor genomes typical of birds may have co-evolved with flight as a means of conserving energy," says Edwards, professor of organismic and evolutionary biology in Harvard's Faculty of Arts and Sciences and Alexander Agassiz Prof...

Imaging pinpoints brain regions that 'see the future'

...ests, offer strong support for a relatively recent theory of memory, which posits that remembering the past ...with suicidally depressed people. So, there's this theory that it all goes hand-in-hand, but nobody has looked closely enough to explain exactly how or why th...

Scientists learn the origin of rogue B cells

...sm to correct them. "Our research goes against the theory that B cells should only express a single receptor," says Casellas. Using a technique in which they inserted a piece of human gene into the cells of laboratory mice, the researchers created a model for visualizing the process in live animals. "Mos...

Remote sheep population resists genetic drift

...rents. This finding challenges the widely accepted theory of genetic drift, which states the genetic diversity of an inbred population will decrease over time. "What is amazing is that models of genetic drift predict the genetic diversity of these animals should have been lost over time, but we've found ...

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