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Tag: "theories" at biology news

Modeling the restless brain

...global climate change. Models must be used to test theories and generate new insights into how the system works as a whole. And while technologies such as functional MRI allow scientists to measure some kinds of neural connectivity, neuroinformatics approaches, which use extensive anatomical and physiolog...

Caribbean frogs started with a single, ancient voyage on a raft from South America

... "This discovery is surprising because no previous theories of how the frogs arrived had predicted a single or...elieved to have exterminated the dinosaurs. "Both theories acknowledged that the frog faunas must have arrived by rafting over water to the smaller and younger...

Bones in motion: Brown scientists to create new 3-D X-ray system

...s for basic and applied research: testing new theories of biomechanics, such as muscle-tendon interactions; studying the evolution of bodies and how they move, such as birds' multijointed wings; planning orthopedic surgeries and comparing the effectiveness of different approaches; creat...

Scientists find potential 'off-switch' for HIV virus

...hem to think they are on the right track. If their theories prove correct, they could form the basis for therapies that combat HIV and other viruses that possess these genetic circuits within their own DNA. "SirT1 and related processes might eventually turn off viral activation in T cells all by themselve...

RNA enzyme structure offers a glimpse into the origins of life

... circularity of this process poses a challenge for theories about the origins of life. "Which came first, nucleic acids or proteins? This question once seemed an intractable paradox, but with the discovery of ribozymes, it is now possible to imagine a prebiotic 'RNA World' in which self-replicating ribozym...

Scientists reveal structure of gateways to gene control

...aid. This result powerfully simplifies previous theories about the possible architecture of gene packaging. "There is a certain DNA sequence that shapes the gene's architecture in the same way, producing the same structure in every gene," Pugh said. The overall sequence of DNA building blocks is differen...

Does evolution select for faster evolvers?

...gle nucleotides on the DNA chain, or genome. A few theories have focused on recombination ?the process that occurs in sexual selection when the genetic sequences of parents are recombined. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a cross-species form of genetic transfer. It occurs when the DNA from one species is...

Computer with brain connections changing quality of life of paralyzed

Fundamental theories regarding consciousness, emotion and quality of life in sufferers of paralysis from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, also known as 'Lou Gerhig's disease') are being challenged based on new research on brain-computer interaction. ALS is a progressi...

Why do cold animals make bigger babies?

... a new statistical approach that can test multiple theories at the same time, an approach they hope will shed ... to reproduce in the cold. When they tested the theories simultaneously with their new approach, the team concluded that temperature's effect on reproduction...

UCLA researchers unravel a mystery about DNA

...uct. These changes are inconsistent with other theories that had suggested that RNAP moves along the DNA strand as a complete block in a process resembling the movement of an inchworm. The research team is comprised of Achillefs N. Kapanidis, Emmanuel Margeat, Sam On Ho, Ekaterine Kortkhonjia and Shimon...

Living laboratory found on shoreline statues

...time we have been able to test some key ecological theories about the colonisations of communities on intertidal shores. We hope to organise collaboration with marine scientists in New York to follow up our research findings in the UK." ...

What animals can tell us about hemorrhage, organ transplants and aging

...attention to long-lived animals. Some of the aging theories to be discussed during the symposium: DNA damage and repair. Short-lived animals may suffer more damage to their genes and have a more difficult time repairing the damage than long-lived animals, the theory goes. Mice, a short-lived species, hav...

Protowings may have helped bird ancestors cover rough terrain

...d result from ancestral, partly evolved wings. Two theories have recently dominated the debate: one postulates that flight evolved in tree-dwelling ancestors that used their forelimbs to help them glide, while the other considers ancestral birds to be terrestrial dinosaurs that developed powered flight from t...

Master planners in brain may coordinate other areas' roles in cognitive tasks

...lways required," he explains. The researchers' theories are reinforced by akinetic mutism, a condition that occurs in patients who suffer a lesion from stroke or surgery that includes the cingulate. To varying degrees, such patients are minimally active. "If you give them a cup of coffee, they'll drink i...

Inheriting a tendency to brain infection

...t Imperial College, London, does not think the two theories are mutually exclusive. "We strongly suspect that rare, highly deleterious mutations may co-exist with common polymorphisms in many infectious diseases," he said. ...

UWM brain research supports drug development from jellyfish protein

... of aging and dementia," which is just one of many theories that attempts to explain what is going on in neuron degeneration. He became interested in aequorin as an undergraduate at UW-Milwaukee, after reading an article that linked the stings of jellyfish with the symptoms of multiple sclerosis, a disease...

Robots manipulating animal behaviour

...s the tradition of using artificial agents to test theories about animals. "Robots have already been used to interact with some animals, such as bees. But they cannot react to the animals' response," he says. "In our project, the autonomous insbots call on specially developed algorithms to react to signals an...

Predators prefer to hunt small-brained prey

...brains across some species, adding to conventional theories which argue this is important for developing social relationships and using tools." ...

Methane-belching bugs inspire a new theory of the origin of life on Earth

...c" theory of evolution improves upon both previous theories by proposing a central role for energy conservatio...ective," Ferry says. "It reshapes the two previous theories of life's origin, it shows how they overlap, and it extends both of them significantly." The appare...

Tyrannosaur survivorship -- tough times for teens

...e animal's life span and thrown doubt on long-held theories about how one species lived, says new research conducted in part at the University of Alberta. "One of the surprises to me was that the overall pattern of survivorship fits closer to an attritional model rather than the catastrophic model we were e...

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