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Tag: "switches" at biology news

Man and mouse share genome structures

...t package DNA, researchers have mapped a family of switches that turn genes on and off. Their findings may help scientists understand regulatory mechanisms underlying cancer and human development. The research team includes first author Bradley Bernstein, recipient of a Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI)...

Plants, animals share molecular growth mechanisms

...y discovered plant protein complex that apparently switches on plants' growth machinery, has opened a scientific toolbox to learn about both plant and animal development, according Purdue University scientists. The protein complex triggers communication between molecules along a pathway that leads to the cre...

New Technique for Tracking Gene Regulators

...d the placeswhere regulators act ?where the on/off switches are that determinewhich genes are at work in different types of cells under differentconditions,?he said.Previous, individual experiments have identified about 100 places whereCREB binds to DNA and regulates genes in humans, so scientists know itis i...

Researchers identify target for cancer drugs

...ers," says Sabatini. The exact means by which Akt switches on when it reaches the cell membrane has only been partially understood. As a result, researchers have lacked a clear idea about how to prevent the process. However, in the February 18 issue of the journal Science, researchers from the Sabatini lab r...

First 'atlas' of key brain genes could speed research on cancer, neurological diseases

...howing the locations of crucial generegulators, or switches that determine how different parts of the braindevelop ?and, in some cases, develop abnormally or malfunction.The scientists say the map will accelerate research on brain tumors andneurological diseases that result from mutations in these switch gene...

Newly discovered pathway might help in design of cancer drugs

...posed it to long wavelength light that selectively switches on the DNA damage process. He said that the synthetic DNA is very similar to that which is produced when cells are exposed to radiation, with one exception: Greenberg's team's DNA was damaged at only one place on its chain, allowing the researchers ...

Successful Test Of Single Molecule Switch Opens The Door To Biomolecular Electronics

...ochemists believe to be capable of being molecular switches but that have failed to exhibit those properties i... originally used. “NDR is the basis for memories, switches and logic elements,?Lindsay says. “It has been observed in molecules before but never in controlled ...

Currents could disrupt ocean food chain

...ea sediment cores. "One full oscillation of these switches took 1,500 years," Schmittner said, "but the individual transitions happened surprisingly fast. The climate went from a cold state to a warm state in as little as 20 to 50 years. Surface temperatures in Greenland increased 20 to 30 degrees Fahrenheit...

Whole genome promoter mapping - Human Genome Project v2.0?

...re the promoters are, we can study how the genetic switches work in a cell, and investigate their connection to human diseases," said Dr. Ren, who is also a member of the Rebecca and John Moores UCSD Cancer Center. He and his colleagues have made the data freely available on online public databases. Dr. Robe...

Discovery of New Dopamine Action May Yield Alternative Psychiatric Drugs

...lse in the receiving neuron. Receptors are protein switches on the surfaces of neurons that recognize neurotransmitters and translate their signals into a cellular response. Dopamine exerts its functions in the brain by binding to two broad classes of receptors -- one class that transmits signals fast and ano...

Study shows how retinoic acid enters a cell's nucleus

...omote cancer, perhaps by blocking the hormone that switches on its NLS. In previous experiments with mice, Noy and her colleagues showed that by increasing CRABP-II levels within cells, tumor growth rates slow dramatically. The protein transfers RA rapidly and efficiently to the cell's nucleus. In this way, ...

Beetle-inspired switch uses water for bonding

...e scale of a micron -- a millionth of a meter. The switches can be combined in arrays for larger applications ...ers could also create large effects from many tiny switches by connecting them in various arrangements, Steen said. "This new technology bridges the gap betwe...

Newly Discovered Role for Heart Response Enzyme May Yield Better Heart Failure Therapy

...surface of heart cells. Such receptors are protein switches that nestle in the cell membrane and that are activated by the hormone adrenaline to enhance the heart's pumping action in response to exercise or stress. In heart failure patients, chronic stress leads to an excess of adrenaline, over-stimulating b...

Molecular trigger for Huntington's disease found

...s the regulatory protein called p53, which in turn switches on a host of other genes. This abnormal gene activation damages the cells' power plants, called the mitochondria, and kills brain cells. The researchers also speculated that disturbances in p53 may also play a role in some forms of Parkinson's disea...

Complex gene interactions account for autism risk

...an inhibitory response. GABA receptors are protein switches nestled in nerve cell membranes that are triggered by GABA to cause such inhibition. Importantly, the study found that the GABA brain system most likely exerts its influence via complex gene-gene interactions. The current findings, and others that ...

Amphetamines reverse Parkinson's disease symptoms in mice

...mine normally acts on dopamine receptors ? protein switches on the surface of neurons -- to stimulate brain processes that affect movement, emotion, pleasure and mood. Parkinson's disease stems from the degeneration of neurons in a brain region that controls movement. That degeneration, in turn, leads to a s...

Cyberkinetics, Case to develop system to help restore extremity function

...ulses that flow to the electrodes. The sensors or switches control the starting and stopping of the pulses supplied by the stimulator. To be truly practical, an FES system needs to correct for changes in the environment and day-to-day changes in the user's body via a feedback method that can adjust the stim...

Yale scientists decipher 'wiring pattern' of cell signaling networks

...tive in a cell. Protein kinases act as regulator switches and modify their target proteins by adding a phosphate group to them. This process, called "phosphorylation," results in altered activity of the phosphorylated protein. It is estimated that 30% of all proteins are regulated by this process. Using t...

Sweet 'water taste' paradoxically predicts sweet taste inhibitors

...e researchers further report that taste perception switches back to sweetness when these high concentrations are rinsed from the mouth with water, resulting in the aftertaste experience known as sweet 'water taste.' The Nature article describes the phenomenon of sweet 'water taste' and then goes on to explai...

Study in Science holds promise for a new approach to drug therapy

...control over one of the most important biochemical switches in the body. This area of study is so important because of the sheer number of drugs already on the market that could be made more effective by differential targeting." ...

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